Scheda insegnamento

Anno Accademico 2021/2022

Conoscenze e abilità da conseguire

The course deals with dynamics and control of electric vehicles and with the compliant implementation of control policies on the programmable electronics systems that supervise the operation of the vehicle. The students will learn to describe a vehicle as a 3-D dynamic system, design optimal control strategies, and implement such strategies on the programmable electronics systems that supervise the operation of the vehicle, with focus on compliance with safety and reliability standards.


Wheel-terrain contact models (10 hours)
Main parameters for 3D tire models (slip, camber, caster and other angles). Deformable tire models. Quarter car model and effect of suspended masses on ride harshness.

Longitudinal dynamics (10 hours)
Performance limits and goals. Powertrain modeling. Torque and power curves. Gear ratios and their optimization. Traction limits. Aerodynamic loads. Simplified numerical models for longitudinal dynamics and component-based software tools.

Handling: lateral and 3D dynamics (10 hours)
Main types of suspension. Kinematics of suspensions. Roll center. Steering architectures and their kinematics.
Geometry of masses. Stability, oversteering and understeering, stability plots.
Numerical models with many degrees of freedom and multibody software tools.

Embedded hardware for compliant systems (2 hr)
Sensing, control, actuation, redundancy, power supply, insulation.

Structured approach to firmware design (2 hr)
V-model, levels of abstraction, validation, verification, documentation.

Implementation: the building system (5 hr)
Source code, preprocessor, compiler, assembly language, machine code, internal operation of the CPU, registers, stack, assembler, linker, optimization.

Software testing and documentation (2 hr)
Unit testing, static and dynamic code analysis, code coverage, process documentation, inline documentation, Doxygen, authoring tools.

Version control systems (2 hr)
Concurrent development, centralized vs. distributed VCSs, SVN, GIT, repositories, update, commit, branching, tagging, merging.

Standards (1 hr)
Standardization organizations, operation, stage codes.

Safety standards (2 hr)
Introduction to safety standards, safety integrity levels, good programming practices.

Coding standards (2 hr)
Motivation, MISRA C, CERT C, Barr Group, rule examples.

Communication protocols (2 hr)
CAN, CANopen, J1939, introduction to industrial communication protocols.

Fixed point ALUs (5 hr)
Fixed point numeric formats, fixed point arithmetic, normalized fractional format, calculations with normalized quantities, examples (Ohm’s law, magnetic flux observer for IMs), TDL calculation structures, µC vs. DSP, fixed point numeric saturation.

Real time computation (2 hr)
Numerical approximation of functions and differential calculus, optimization.

Watchdogs (1 hr)
Timeout watchdog, windowed watchdog, hardware watchdog, independence, best practices.

Bootloaders (1 hr)
MCU vs. FPGA and SoC, MCU booting sequence, interrupt vector table relocation, OpenBLT.

Memory management and protection (1 hr)
Paging, alignment, MMU/MPU, virtual memory, error checking and management.


Georg Rill. Road Vehicle Dynamics: Fundamentals and Modeling. CRC press.

William F. Milliken e Douglas L., "Race car vehicle dynamics", SAE Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995, ISBN 978-1-56091-526-3.

PDFs, presentations and other material provided by the teacher.

Metodi didattici

Lezioni in aula ed esercizi con strumenti informatici.

Modalità di verifica e valutazione dell'apprendimento

Esame orale con domande sugli argomenti trattati a lezione e discussione sugli esercizi al calcolatore svolti durante il corso.

Strumenti a supporto della didattica

MATLAB, Simulink, hardware-in-the-loop systems.

Orario di ricevimento

Consulta il sito web di Alessandro Tasora

Consulta il sito web di Carlo Concari