Anno Accademico 2023/2024

  • Docente: Paolo Garofalo
  • Crediti formativi: 8
  • SSD: GEO/05
  • Lingua di insegnamento: Inglese
  • Modalità didattica: Convenzionale - Lezioni in presenza
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Laurea Magistrale in Geologia e territorio (cod. 9073)

Conoscenze e abilità da conseguire

This course aims at providing integrated and quantitative geochemical tools that can be used for modelling the genesis of primary mineral deposits and evaluate the environmental impact of exploited mine sites. The course is divided in two modules and combines the use of theoretical models of fluid-mineral equilibria with practical aspects of the analysis of fluids and gases in natural environments. Our aim is providing the students with specific competence on fluid-rock interaction modelling that can be applied for the studies of primary and secondary raw materials, and competence on the practical aspects of fluid-gas analysis and their interpretation using case studies.


Physical-chemical properties of H2O as a solvent. Aqueous complexes and their role in metal transport. Electrolyte theory. Types of solutions and their properties. Ion dissociation in ideal and natural solutions. Ion activities and the Debye-Hückel equations. Equilibrium constants and their meaning. Mineral solubilities (ore and gangue). Fluid-mineral equilibria and their use: activity diagrams. Definition of Solubility Products. Redox reaction equilibria the Nerst equation. Eh-pH diagrams and their applications. Isotope geochemistry of O, H, S, and C and their use in mineral deposit studies. Introduction to groundwater geochemistry and its classification. Introduction to mine residuals: stockpiles and waste. Mine drainage and metal loading. Characteristics of sulfidic mine waste. Role of bacteria. Mineralogy of mine wastes. Remediation, reclamation, rehabilitation, and restoration. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment and Rehabilitation.


Anderson G. (2017). Thermodynamics of Natural Systems. Cambridge University Press, 3rd Edition

Barnes H.L. (1997). Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits: Wiley & Sons, Inc.. 3rd Edition

Treatise in Geochemistry (2003). Environmental Geochemistry. Vol. 9. p. 1-203. Elsevier

Papers and additional reading material will be distributed as well

Metodi didattici

Class teaching;

Laboratory excercises;


Modalità di verifica e valutazione dell'apprendimento

1. Level of independence and effectiveness during classroom exercises – 25%

2. Written test – 50%

3. Oral test – 25%

Strumenti a supporto della didattica

Laboratory excercises;

Seminars provided by external instructors from academia and industry

Orario di ricevimento

Consulta il sito web di Paolo Garofalo