Anno Accademico 2023/2024

  • Docente: Alessandra Bonazza
  • Crediti formativi: 9
  • SSD: FIS/07
  • Lingua di insegnamento: Inglese

Conoscenze e abilità da conseguire

At the end of the course the student will acquire: - basic information on the environmental risk to cultural property caused by physical, chemical, biological and natural factors; - basic information about environmental impact on the constituent materials in works of art; - methodologies for assessing the microclimate in indoor and outdoor environment for a sustainable protection of cultural artefacts and providing criteria and methodologies for assessing the environmental risk and vulnerability of cultural heritage at local, regional and national scale, including the impact of climate change; - criteria and methods to plan strategies for preventive conservation and to present examples of application to museums, archives and library.


UNIT 1 "Environmental Impact and Damage Processes of Cultural Heritage": Alessandra Bonazza

  • Deterioration processes affecting low porous materials
  • Deterioration processes affecting high porous materials
  • Deterioration processes affecting air setting and hydraulic mortars
  • Ageing field and laboratory tests. Case studies.
  • Climate change impact on the built cultural heritage
  • Modelling for damage mapping
  • Risk assessment and cultural heritage resilience
  • Adaptation and mitigation strategies for cultural heritage protection
  • Practical work in teams on environmental damage assessment on cultural heritage

UNIT 2 "Environmental Monitoring and Deposition for Cultural Heritage Protection": Cristina Sabbioni

  • Physical, chemical, biological and other factors responsible for deterioration
  • Transportation and deposition mechanisms of pollutants
  • Microclimate and indoor environments

UNIT 3 "Biological colonization of stone heritage objects": Giulia Caneva

  • General analysis on the biodeterioration of artworks:

    Main characteristics of organisms (bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria and algae, lichens, plants and animals), and their relationship with biodeterioration

  • Ecology of biodeterioration (when biodeterioration can start in relationships with environmental conditions- the limiting factors and the main problems in Museums, hypogea, outdoor conditions)
  • Characteristics of materials, (when biodeterioration can start in relationships with the typology of materials- the concept of bioreceptivity- nutritional influences)
  • The assessment of biodeterioration (sampling, microscopic evaluations; analysis of biological traces
  • The prevention and control of biological damage: general principles- Indirect and direct methods (biocides and new eco-friendly biocides)


Units 1 and 2

Bonazza A., Sardella A., Kaiser A., Cacciotti R., De Nuntiis P., Hanus C., Maxwell I., Drdácký T., Drdácký M., 2021. Safeguarding cultural heritage from climate change related hydrometeorological hazards in Central Europe. International Journal of Disaster Risk reduction, 63, 102455, ISSN 2212-4209, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102455 .

Sardella A., Palazzi E., von Hardenberg J, Del Grande C., De Nuntiis P., Sabbioni C., Bonazza A. 2020. Risk mapping for the sustainable protection of cultural heritage in extreme changing environments. Special Issue Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Urban Cultural Heritage. Atmosphere 10(15), 5106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070700

Vidorni G., Sardella A., De Nuntiis P., Volpi F., Dinoi A., Contini D., Comite V., Vaccaro C., Fermo P., Bonazza A. 2019. Air pollution impact on carbonate building stones in Italian urban sites. The European Physical Journal Plus. 134: 439. DOI: 10.1140/epjp/i2019-12943-0.

Sardella A., De Nuntiis P., Bonazza A., 2018. Efficiency evaluation of treatments against rising damp by scale models and test in situ. Journal of Cultural Heritage, Special Issue ModihMA 2018, 31S, S30-S37.

Ciantelli, C., Palazzi E., Von Hardenberg J., Vaccaro C., Tittarelli F., Bonazza A., 2018. How can climate change affect the UNESCO cultural heritage sites in Panama? Geosciences (Switzerland) 8, https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080296

Bonazza A., Vidorni G., Natali I., Giosuè C., Tittarelli F. 2017. Durability assessment to environmental impact of nano-structured consolidants on Carrara marble by field exposure tests. Science of the Total Environment, 575, 23-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.004.

Barca D., Comite V., Belfiore C.M., Bonazza A., La Russa M.F., Ruffolo S.A., Crisci G.M., Pezzino A., Sabbioni, C., 2014. Impact of air pollution in deterioration of carbonate building materials in Italian urban environments. Applied Geochemistry, 48, 122-131. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.07.002

Belfiore C.M., Barca D., Bonazza A., Comite V., La Russa M.F., Pezzino A., Ruffolo S.A., Sabbioni C., 2013. Application of spectrometric analysis to the identification of pollution sources causing cultural heritage damage. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20 (12), 8848-8859.

Gomez-Bolea, A., Llop E., Arino X., Saiz-Jimenez C., Bonazza A., Messina P., Sabbioni C., 2012. Mapping the impact of climate change on biomass accumulation on stone. Journal of Cultural Heritage 13, 254-258.

Sabbioni C., Brimblecombe P., Cassar M., (2010) Atlas of climate change impact on European Cultural Heritage, Anthem Press, ISBN 978927909800-0, 146 pp.

Bonazza A., Sabbioni C., Messina P., Guaraldi C., De Nuntiis P., 2009. Climate change impact: mapping thermal stress on Carrara marble in Europe. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 4506-4512.

Bonazza A., Messina P., Sabbioni C., Grossi C. M., Brimblecombe P. 2009. Mapping the impact of climate change on surface recession of carbonate buildings in Europe. Science of the Total Environment 407, 2039-2050.

Ghedini N., Sabbioni C., Bonazza A., Gobbi G., 2006. Chemical-Thermal quantitative methodology for carbon speciation in damage layers on building surfaces. Environmental Science and Technology 40, 939-944

Unit 3

Caneva G., Nugari M.P, SALVADORI O, 2008. Plant Biology for cultural heritage. Getty Conservation Institute. Los Angeles: 1-408. ISBN 9780892369393

Pinna D. (2017) Coping with biological growth on stone heritage objects: methods, products, applications, and perspectives. Apple Academic Press, Waretown, USA.

Conservation Science: Heritage Materials: Edition 2. Editors: Paul Garside, Emma Richardson. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021

Metodi didattici

Units 1 and 2: Frontal Teaching, interactive discussion in teams, practical exercise in teams, practical sessions in laboratory

Unit 3: The unit includes frontal lectures with PowerPoint presentations and videos. Furthermore, it includes laboratory sessions for practical experience (observation of samples under the stereomicroscope; sampling of different biodeteriogens; making a cross-section of the samples; observation of cross-sections and glass slides under the optical microscope; observation of Petri dishes and microbiological colonies).

Modalità di verifica e valutazione dell'apprendimento

Oral Examination.

The final exam consists of a discussion on the topics covered in class (a minimum of 3 questions will be asked), aimed at the evaluation of the theoretical knowledge acquired during the course, the possession of the scientific language and the acquisition of an organic vision of the topics covered.
Good or excellent grades can be achieved by students who demonstrate a critical knowledge of the subject, who are able to apply theoretical concepts to practical examples, make use of an appropriate language and make well thought out connections among the different argument discussed in class.

Mostly mnemonic knowledge, limited abilities of synthesis and analysis and imprecise language lead to grades ranging from discrete to sufficient. Important gaps, inappropriate language, lack of an overview of the topics covered will inevitably lead to a barely adequate grade or to a negative evaluation.

Strumenti a supporto della didattica

Power point presentations, scientific materials and instruments, video, charts, pictures, drawing, photos, published articles, books, thin section for mineralogical analysis, bulk samples, blackboard, learning games

Orario di ricevimento

Consulta il sito web di Alessandra Bonazza

Consulta il sito web di Cristina Sabbioni

Consulta il sito web di Giulia Caneva


Imprese innovazione e infrastrutture Città e comunità sostenibili Lotta contro il cambiamento climatico La vita sulla terra

L'insegnamento contribuisce al perseguimento degli Obiettivi di Sviluppo Sostenibile dell'Agenda 2030 dell'ONU.