Scheda insegnamento

  • Docente Paolo Garofalo

  • Crediti formativi 8

  • SSD GEO/05

  • Lingua di insegnamento Inglese

  • Campus di Bologna

  • Corso Laurea Magistrale in Geologia e territorio (cod. 9073)

  • Orario delle lezioni dal 21/02/2022 al 17/05/2022


L'insegnamento contribuisce al perseguimento degli Obiettivi di Sviluppo Sostenibile dell'Agenda 2030 dell'ONU.

Istruzione di qualità Acqua pulita e servizi igienico-sanitari Energia pulita e accessibile Imprese innovazione e infrastrutture

Anno Accademico 2021/2022

Conoscenze e abilità da conseguire

This course aims at providing an integrated and quantitative understanding of the geochemical processes leading to the genesis of mineral deposits, their environmental impact, and the analytical questions linking them. The first module will focus on analysis of rocks and minerals. The second module will focus on analysis of fluids and gases.


The objective of this course is giving the students an introduction to the geochemical processes, techniques, and methods that are necessary to quantify and model the genesis of primary mineral deposits (typical ore bodies), recover secondary raw materials (mine tailings or industrial waste), quantify rock-fluid-gas interactions in geological environments, evaluate the interactions between mine fluids (or other waste fluids) and solids from the RM industry, and also evaluate environmental risks and rehabilitation good practices associated to RM exploitation. The course contents will include electrolyte theory; concept and use of equilibrium constants in geochemistry; chemical potential diagrams; fluid- and gas equilibria in volcanic and geothermal environments; metal partitioning, solubility, and transport in natural aqueous solutions; solubility of ore and gangue minerals; saturation index and its applications; mineral stability diagrams; Eh-pH diagrams; mineral, solute, and gas geothermometry; stable isotope systematics; chemistry of metal recovery and refining in industry; hazard and risk mitigation strategies related to RMs; environmental impact and consequent rehabilitation of natural and man-made pollution.

At the end of the course the students will gain the fundamental geochemical tools to RM exploration, recovery, and evaluation of environmental impact. A number of seminars from industry and institutional partners will provide hands-on knowledge and case studies of applications of geochemical tools.


Barnes H.L. (1997). Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits: Wiley & Sons, Inc.. 3rd Edition

Treatise in Geochemistry (2003). Environmental Geochemistry. Vol. 9. p. 1-203. Elsevier

Andreson G. (2017). Thermodynamics of Natural Systems. Cambridge University Press, 3rd Edition

Volcanic Degassing, 2003. C. Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., Barclay, J. (Eds.) Geological Society of London, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.213

Papers and additional reading material will be distributed as well

Metodi didattici

Class teaching;


Laboratory excercises;


Modalità di verifica e valutazione dell'apprendimento

Different assessment methods will be used to evaluate the students: content-based, competence-based and impact-based assessments. Content-based assessment refers to assessment tasks that mainly ask the learner about facts. Competence-based assessments refers to assessment of intended learning outcomes that ask the learner to show ability to also use these facts. Impact-based assessments take the assessment of competencies one step further and ask the learner to use these competencies in a real-life situation to create a change or solve a challenge.

Class participation: 20%

Lab / field work: 40%

Written outputs - essay or laboratory exercise: 40%

Strumenti a supporto della didattica

Laboratory excercises;

Seminars provided by external instructors from academia and industry

Orario di ricevimento

Consulta il sito web di Paolo Garofalo