Scheda insegnamento


L'insegnamento contribuisce al perseguimento degli Obiettivi di Sviluppo Sostenibile dell'Agenda 2030 dell'ONU.

Istruzione di qualità

Anno Accademico 2019/2020

Conoscenze e abilità da conseguire

Analisi di Superficie e Spettroscopie a Raggi X. Lo studente conosce le principali tecniche analitiche di superficie e ne sa discriminare i campi di applicazione. Conosce le tecniche analitiche e strutturali basate sull'utilizzo della radiazione X ed in grado di sfruttarne le peculiarità nella progettazione di un processo analitico.



To successfully attend this class, the student should know:

  • the basic of x-rays and x-ray diffraction (course: “X-Ray Diffraction” at the University of Lille)
  • the basic of the absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation
  • the beer lambert law for absorption


Introduction to the course.

X-rays: origin and generation. X-ray absorption coefficient and mass absorption coefficient. Calculations and examples on mass absorption coefficient. Decay of the core-hole: x-ray Fluorescence and Auger effect.

X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the acronyms XANES, EXAFS, SEXAFS, NEXAFS. Theory: The EXAFS equation and the key approximations: one electron, plane wave, and K-threshold. Muffin-Tin and many body effects. Debye-Waller EXAFS factor and disorder.

X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering.

X-Ray Microscopy.

Experimental methods for Absorption and Emission. Synchrotron radiation. XAS Spectroelectrochemistry and cells for in-situ measurements. Operando studies.

Data Analysis. XANES calculations ad EXAFS fittings. Primary data reduction: extraction of the (k) and Fourier Transformation. Data analysis using fitting approach. Chemometry for spectroscopy. Use of Multivariate Curve Resolution - Alternating Least Square (MCR-ALS) algorithm for the analysis of operando data collection.

Applications in the field of solution chemistry, surfaces, catalysis, batteries, inorganic and biological materials.

The course is completed by one laboratory (practical) using the X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer.


G. Bunker, “Introduction to XAFS” Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-521-76775-0

Marco Giorgetti (2013). "A Review on the Structural Studies of Batteries and Host Materials by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy". Free download at: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/938625/cta/

Marco Giorgetti and Lorenzo Stievano (2017). "X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Battery Materials". Free download at: https://www.intechopen.com/chapter/pdf-download/53744

Dino Tonti, Mara Olivares-Marín, Andrea Sorrentino and Eva Pereiro (2017). "Studies of Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrodes by Energy- Dependent Full-Field Transmission Soft X-Ray Microscopy". Free download at: https://www.intechopen.com/chapter/pdf-download/53739

Other specific material will be given by the teacher.

Metodi didattici

The course describes the potentiality of both X-Ray Absorption and X-Ray Emission as an electronic and structural tools for the study of the condensed, crystalline, solution and amorphous phases. Front lectures and exercitation will be the offered with several examples concerning basic data analysis and interpretation of spectra.

Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento

The final examination will determine the level reached by the student in the objectives set out in the "Learning outcomes”. The assessment of the learning consists in an oral presentation on a selected topic learned during the course, using 10-15 slides. Then a discussion follows on the presented concepts and the theme of the article inspires to discuss the basic concepts common to all the topics covered in class.

The final assessment takes into account both the exposure (15 points) and the ability to discuss the general concepts (18 points). The honor (cum laude) is reached with 33 points.

Strumenti a supporto della didattica

Lecture slides and other material useful for exam preparation is made available to the student electronically via the iol.unibo.it website. Username and password are reserved for students enrolled at the University of Bologna via the unibo credential.

Orario di ricevimento

Consulta il sito web di Marco Giorgetti