66117 - Human Anatomy and Animal Biology

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2018/2019

Learning outcomes

The students will learn about the organization of tissues and organs of the human body. This knowledge will allow them to better understand the subsequent classes of biochemistry, physiology, pathology and pharmacology starting from basic knowledges in animal cellular biology.

Course contents

Program of Animal Biology

Macromolecules : carbohydrates , lipids , proteins and nucleic acids. The prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism. The 6 kingdoms.

The eukaryotic cell. Biological membranes: structure and functions; exo and endocytosis.

Structure and functions of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. The lysosomes. The mitochondria. Cellular respiration. The peroxisomes.

The cytoskeleton: microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments. Cellular communication.

The nucleus. Duplication and transcription. Translation: genetic code and protein synthesis .

Cell division : mitosis and meiosis . The asexual and sexual reproduction .

Heredity: genes, alleles, characters, genotype and phenotype. Mendel’s 1st and 2nd law. Incomplete dominance and co-dominance .

Mendel’s 3rd law and genetic association. Gene interactions and epistasis. Quantitative inheritance. Pleiotropy. Lethal genes.

Sex-linked inheritance. Genotypic and environmental sex determination .

Heredity and environment.

Genic, chromosomal and genomic mutations.

The origin of life: the prebiotic synthesis, the RNA world, compartmentalization, prokaryotic cells, the symbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells. The origin and diversification of multicellular organisms.



Program of Human Anatomy


Epithelial tissue

Connective Tissue (cells and extracellular matrix proteins)

Bone tissue,

Cartilage tissue


Adipose tissue

Musclular tissue

Nervous tissue


Anatomical nomenclature, position, planes and axis

SKELETON SYSTEM: Organization of the skeleton. The skull.

Axial Skeleton – Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage.

Appendicular Skeleton – Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb; Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb



CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: heart and pericardium. Circulatory loops. Basic structure of the blood vessels. Coronary arteries, aorta and pulmonary arteries.

Lymphatic system, lymph vessels, lymph nodes

Spleen and thymus

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: morphology of the upper airways (nose, nasal cavity, pharynx). Morphology of the lower airways (larynx, trachea and the stem bronchi). Lungs, pulmonary segments, the intrapulmonary conducting airways. Diaphragm and the lung–chest system

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Mouth and oral structures, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Liver, gallbladder and biliary tract. Hepatic portal system. Pancreas acinar cells and islet cells.

RENAL SYSTEM: kidneys, general description and location. Renal vessels. Internal structure and organization of the kidneys. Ureters and urinary bladder.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: general description of the male reproductive system, the scrotum, the testes, the structure of the sperm canal. The prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands. General description of the female reproductive system, the ovaries and uterus.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: general description and functions. Pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, pineal gland.

NERVOUS SYSTEM: the central nervous system, the brain, the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system, spinal nerves, cranial nerves. Meninges, ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid.

THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: Sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system


For the Animal Biology Module:

Sadava et al. Elementi di Biologia e Genetica, Zanichelli, Bologna

For the Anatomy Module:

 ANATOMIA UMANA -principi- Artico et al., Ed. Edi Ermes

ANATOMIA DELL'UOMO Ambrosi et al., Ed. Edi Ermes

ANATOMIA UMANA Martini Ed. Edises Napoli


Testi di consultazione

F.H. NETTER Atlante di Anatomia Umana, Ciba-Geigy Edizioni

J. SOBOTTA Atlante di Anatomia Descrittiva I, II, III S.E.S.

Teaching methods

The course comprises 9 credits. During the classes, slides will be projected to fully illustrate all the topics of the Contents.

Assessment methods

There will be an oral examination and the students will be asked questions related to the topics discussed during the classes.

Teaching tools

Personal computer and videoprojector.

Office hours

See the website of Barbara Mantovani

See the website of Gabriella Teti