00088 - Chemistry

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education Affordable and clean energy Responsible consumption and production Climate Action

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

The course is aimed to provide to the students a basic understanding of the structure of matter and of the thermodynamic and kinetic principles that rule its transformation. The students will also acquire the basic knowledge to understand the connections among the structure, the properties and the reactivity of the organic molecules with particular emphasis on their acid-base characteristics. The student will be able to critically analyze, from a molecular point of view, the chemical reactions that take place in the agro-environmental ecosphere.

Course contents

Introduction. What is Chemistry?

The atomic structure. The atomic theory; atomic composition; atomic and mass numbers. Isotopes and atomic weight. Bohr's atomic theory; energy quantization. Atomic structure and quantum theories ; orbitals, quantum numbers and spin. Orbitals in polyelectronic atoms, electronic configurations of elements. Periodic Table and relation with electronic configuration. Ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic and ionic radii.

Molecules and compounds. Minimum and molecular formula. Valence and oxidation degrees. Nomenclature. Lewis structures of molecule and polyatomic ions. Molecular geometry. Resonance, isomers, PM and PF. The mole and NA. Molar mass and numbers of moles.

Chemical bond. General concepts. Ionic bond: lattice energy, stoichiometry and geometry of ionic compounds. Covalent bonds: electronegativity and bond polarity; bond energy and distance. Valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory. Ibridization. Metallic bond. Intermolecular forces: Van der Waals, London and hydrogen bond.

The states of matter. Solid, liquid and gaseous states: general properties. Gas theoretic model. Equation of state for gases. Gas mixtures: partial pressure. Changes of state and phase diagrams.

Solutions and their properties. General properties of solutions. Concentration. Solubility. Solutions of electrolytes. Ideal, diluted or concentrated solutions. Changes of state in liquid solutions. Raoult and Henry laws. Osmosis. Colligative properties and determination of molecular weight.

Chemical reactions. Chemical reactions and equations; mass conservation law. Equation balancing. Redox reactions and their balancing. Reactions in solution and ionic equations; redox half-reactions. Mass relation in the reactions; equivalent weight.

Chemical thermodynamics. General aspects of thermodynamics; reactions and heat ( internal energy, enthalpy), spontaneous reactions (entropy, free energy), study of the free energy variation during a chemical reaction.

Chemical equilibria. Complete and uncompleted reactions. The equilibrium constants: Kc and Kp. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Le Chatelier's principle. Solubility and Kps. Effects of P,V,T, concentrations of reagents and products on the position of the equilibria. Simultaneous equilibria. Stoichiometric calculations on equilibria.

Acids and bases. Protonic theory of acid and bases. Autoionization; Kw. Ka and Kb. Polyprotic acids and bases. Molecular structure and acid/base properties. Acidity of solutions: pH. Acid-base reactions. Buffers. pH and solubility.

Electrochemistry. Galvanic cells. Reduction potentials and cell e.m.f. Electrolysis

Kinetics. Generalities of Kinetic: rate of reaction, kinetic equation. Reaction mechanism. Activated complex and activation energy. Catalysis.

Organic Chemistry. Definition of hybrid and hybridation concepts. Organic acids and bases, nucleophilies and electrophiles. Description of the main functional groups and organic compounds classes with their nomenclature, and references to their structures and possible isomers and stereochemistry. Aminoacids, structures, acid-base properties, peptidic ligand and proteins. Lipids: fats and oils. Soaps. Phospholipids. Steroids. Biological membranes.


It is mainly recommended to use the teaching material and lecture notes. As a supplement to the study any UNIVERSITY text dedicated to General and Inorganic Chemistry courses of the first level is suitable.

Students who already have other study texts are invited to discuss with the teacher to verify the contents.

Teaching methods

Classroom lectures with power point presentations concerning the theoretical aspects of the course.

Practical lectures dealing with chemistry numerical problems, with particular reference to final exam examples.

Compatibly with time, the possibility of using small videos and / or simple experimental demonstrations in the classroom will be evaluated.

The attendance to the lectures and the study of the teaching material is essential to passing the final exam.

Assessment methods

They consist of a final exam - a written test - to ascertain the acquisition of knowledge and skills acquired during the course. The test time is two hours. It is not allowed the use of notes, handouts or books, and any type of electronic device (excluding the scientific calculator). The following material is necessary for the final examination: an identification document with photo (identity card, university badge with photo), calculator, black or blue pen, a periodic table.

The written test includes:

- seven theory questions on all the topics covered during the course;

- three numerical exercises, each on a different subject among the course: atomic weight and mole, stoichiometry, colligative properties, chemical equilibrium, acid-base equilibrium in solution, pH, hydrolysis, buffers, acid-base titrations, solubility equilibria

each correct answer in the theory questions corresponds to 2 points; each numerical problem have a score between 0 and 6. The final mark of the writing is calculated by summing the scores obtained in all the questions and problems.

The maximum mark obtainable in the test is 32 (full marks); the exam is passed with a mark of at least 18.

The evaluation of the final test determines the mark of the exam; partial partial tests are not foreseen.

The student has the right to choose whether to take an oral interview to improve the mark of the written exam.

Exams (both written and oral) may be held in English. Students who wish to take the exam in English must request it in writing (email) to the teacher at least one week before the exam.

Teaching tools

Projectors, interactive whiteboards and classroom whiteboards.
Possibility to download (https://virtuale.unibo.it/) the lectures teaching material given by the teacher.

A section of the teaching material will be dedicated to the information related to the participation of the course and for undertake of the final exam.

Students with a disability certification and with DSA are invited to contact the teacher to:
- implement the teaching methods
- fix and undertake with sufficient advance compensatory and dispensative measures during the final exam

Office hours

See the website of Enrico Rampazzo

See the website of Massimo Baroncini