27868 - Laboratory of Organic Synthesis and Characterization (A-L)

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being Clean water and sanitation Industry, innovation and infrastructure Sustainable cities

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

Objective of the course is to develop basic skills in the synthesis of organic compounds by modern synthetic methods. The student will be able to analyze and purify substances by liquid chromatography. The student will develop basic skills in the identification of simple organic compounds through combined NMR, MS, IR.

Course contents

  • Inert gas techniques, Schlenk line and syringe techniques.
  • Grade and safety information of organic reagents, solvents and commercial details.
  • Purification of organic compounds by chromatography: liquid chromatography (flash-chromatography), criteria for the choice of stationary phase and mobile phase.
  • Introduction to mass spettrometry for simple organic compounds, electron impact (EI) and electronspray spectra (ESI).
  • Applications of GC-MS and HPLC.
  • Review of the fundamentals about Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques and NMR instrumentations.
  • 1H-NMR insights (symmetry in the determination of the structure of organic compounds, Karplus equation and coupling constants, spin systems and Pople enotation, integration of signals).
  • 13Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, similarities and differences with proton 1H-NMR.
  • Examples of 31P e 19F NMR.
  • Interpretation of spectroscopic data for the identification of simple organic compounds by NMR and MS spectra with exercises.


Lecture notes will be available for download.

Interesting reference books are:

  • La Chimica Organica in Laboratorio , M. D'Ischia, Ed. Piccin.
  • Identificazione Spettrometrica di Composti Organici, Silverstein, Webster, Kiemle. 2° Ed. Ambrosiana.
  • Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry, J. Leonard, B. Lygo, G. Procter. Ed Thompson.

Teaching methods

  • Oral lectures (3 CFU, 24 h) supported by multimedia techniques.
  • Laboratory session (2 CFU, 32 h) to improve experimental skills in organic synthesis and characterization by a multistep synthesis of an organic molecules. The laboratory experience will be conducted individually.
  • Training in the interpretation of laboratory data and in writing laboratory report will be arranged (1 CFU, 12h).

In considerazione delle tipologie di attività e metodi didattici adottati, la frequenza di questa attività formativa richiede lo svolgimento di tutti gli studenti dei moduli 1 e 2 in modalità e-learning e la partecipazione al modulo 3 di formazione specifica sulla sicurezza e salute nei luoghi di studio. Indicazioni su date e modalità di frequenza del modulo 3 sono consultabili nella apposita sezione del sito web di corso di studio.

Assessment methods

To have access to the final exam you must have passed the exam of Organic Chemistry 2 and Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

Verification of learning occurs through:

  • The conduct of individual reports regarding the laboratory activity, which must be delivered by the date defined by the teacher, however within the first scheduled examination session. The reports will be assessed on the basis of the student's ability to communicate in scientific form and comment on the results obtained during the practical tests.
  • A written test (1h and 30 min) concerning the structural recognition of an organic compound using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.
  • An oral test concerning the laboratory techniques and spectroscopic techniques discussed in the lectures.

Passing the written exam is mandatory. The final vote is determined by the arithmetic mean of the results obtained in the three tests. The teacher may assign a maximum score of 3 points on the basis of the behavior during the practical laboratory sessions.

Teaching tools

The slides and videos shown during the lessons are available for download in the institutional deposit of the teaching materials of the University of Bologna.

Laboratory sessions to improve experimental skills will be in the organic synthesis laboratory of the department "G. Ciamician".

Office hours

See the website of Andrea Gualandi