75542 - Applied Hydrogeology

Course Unit Page

SDGs

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Clean water and sanitation Climate Action

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the trained student will be able to define the role of groundwater flow systems inside the framework of the watershed water budget and to set up an exploitation scheme of the aquifers. In particular the trained student will be able to: - evaluate and choose specific tools and techniques to measure hydrodinamic parameters (conductivity, transmissivity, storage) of the aquifer in relation to site geological conceptual model; to plan a sustainable groundwater exploitation scheme; to learn and apply computer-based tools to analyze hydrogeological data; to apply hydrogeological prospecting tools in the field. Field activities will be conducted along with the teaching of "Stabilità dei Versanti" for a total of 2 CFU.


Course contents

MODULE 1: RATIONALE AND PRINCIPLES

1. HYDROGEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN WELLS AND BOREHOLES

  1. Wells: designing and drilling.
  2. Well hydraulics 1: Non Equilibrium methods for confined, leaky-confined and unconfined aquifers. Recovery method.
  3. Well hydraulics 2: Equilibrium method. Step discharge test. Hydraulic transmissivity and specific discharge.
  4. Pumping tests. Slug-test, Lefranc and Lugeon test

2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN SPRINGS AND STREAMS

  1. Uptake of springs.
  2. Discharge: Analysis of the spring hydrograph. Hydrologic recession. Evaluation of groundwater resources discharging to the spring outlet.
  3. Tracers and tracer tests in hydrogeology
  4. Discharge measurements by velocimeters, weirs, stage curve and dilution method.

3. SECOND PART: EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES

  1. Estimation of recharge. Hydrology of unsaturated zone. Groundwater budget and budget components.  
  2. Safe yield concept. Overdrafting of aquifers. Managing aquifer recharge. Effects of overdrafting in terms of salinization, subsidence and impairment of environmental flows.
  3. Effects on groundwater of Climate Change and Global Change

MODULE 2: TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS

1. HYDROGEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN WELLS AND BOREHOLES

  1. Tools for hydrogeological monitoring in wells and piezometers.
  2. Exercises: analysis and interpretation of borehole tests (pumping tests, slug tests).

2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN SPRINGS AND STREAMS

  1. Tools for discharge gauging of springs and streams.
  2. Exercises: quantification of discharge from current-meter and tracer data; development of stage curves for continuous monitoring of discharge.

3. EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES

  1. Overview on the interpolation of hydrogeological point data.
  2. Exercises: interpolation of hydrogeological parameters; head contour mapping; groundwater budgeting.

Readings/Bibliography

Readings/Bibliography

Lessons of the teachers downloadable from the university web site https://iol.unibo.it/ .

The material will be available the day preceding the lesson.

As an integrating tool of the lessons, in particular for students not able to guarantee the presence in class, following text books are recommended:

M.Civita "Idrogeologia applicata ed ambientale", Ambrosiana, 2005

G.Pranzini "Le acque sotterranee", Pitagora Editrice, Bologna

Freeze & Cherry - Groundwater. Fully translated in Italian at the following link:

http://hydrogeologistswithoutborders.org/wordpress/1979-italiano/


Teaching methods

Theoretycal lessons in classroom

Computer-aided exercises in classroom by PC provided by students

The course is divided in 3 parts, for each of one the lessons of Module 1 (Alessandro Gargini) are followed by the lessons and exercises of Module 2 (Maria Filippini)

The attendance of the student to the lesson is not compulsory but strongly recommended

On field excursions to sites of hydrogeological interest near Bolognawill be organized during the course

At the end of the course a 3-4 days laboratory on the field will be held. The students will conduct, organized in groups, hydrogeological tests and will collect data useful for the final reporting of the lab activity

As concerns the teaching methods of this course unit, all students must attend Module 1, 2 [https://www.unibo.it/en/services-and-opportunities/health-and-assistance/health-and-safety/online-course-on-health-and-safety-in-study-and-internship-areas] online, while Module 3 on health and safety is to be attended in class. Information about Module 3 attendance schedule is available on the website of your degree programme”


Assessment methods

The exam is based upon a practical and an oral trial.

Practical exam could be performed, according the choice of the student, according one of the following two options: a) write a report with analysis and interpretation of hydrogeological data collected on the field during the outdoor laboratory activity at the end of the course; b) practical exercise at the computer by interpretation of hydrogeological data provided by the teacher.

Practical exam is evaluated according the following grades of judgment: Optimal-Good-Fair-Poor-Bad. With a judgment of “bad” there is no the admission to the oral examination and the practical trial must be repeated; in all other cases there is the admission to the oral examination.

Oral examination, in front of the teacher, is evaluated with a vote expressed in fraction of 30. Depending on the judgment of the practical trial the highest votation potentially achievable in the oral test is as follows: Optimal-30/30 cum laude; Good-30/30; Fair-27/30; Poor-25/30.

If the student chooses the option "b" for the practical exam it is possible to try again only once the exam in the case of not accepted votation. The oral could be taken also in a later session respect to the practical test


Teaching tools

Videoprojector, PC, blackboard, demonstration of the use of instruments (in the lab and on the field), PC provided by students with use of freeware dedicated software for exercises

Office hours

See the website of Alessandro Gargini

See the website of Maria Filippini