69716 - Laboratory of Geophysics 2

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Sustainable cities

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, students will possess technical and practical know-how on some of the main experimental methods of investigation used in Geophysics. Particularly, students will be able to perform shallow surface geophysical prospecting with seismic refraction techniques as well as seismic reflection techniques.


Course contents

The course is composed of two modules.

Module 1 (Prof. Filippo Zaniboni): Reflection and transmission coefficients for seismic waves across an interface. Refraction seismics. Dromochrones for refracted waves in models with plane parallel interfaces. Dromochrone of a refracted wave on a dipping plane. Direct and conjugate path. Planning a seismic refraction survey. GRM method. Lab exercises related to refraction seismics on data provided by the teacher and collected in the field.

Module 2 (Prof. Alberto Armigliato): Reflection seismics. Dromochrone for a wave reflected by a single plane interface. Reflection hyperbola. Normal-Move-Out (NMO) correction. Reflected waves in a multilayer medium with parallel interfaces. Reflection from a single dipping interface - dip move-out. Acquisition configurations. Velocity analysis. Basics on filters. Seismic section. The concept of migration. Lab exercises related to reflection seismics on data provided by the teacher and collected in the field.



Slides and lecture notes, available online at https://virtuale.unibo.it/ after each lesson.


The following textbooks can be useful:

H. Robert Burger, Anne F. Sheehan, Craig. H. Jones. Introduction to Applied Geophysics: Exploring The Shallow Subsurface, Norton, 2006.

  • John M. Reynolds, An introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2011.
  • Yilmaz, Seismic Data Analysis. Available online athttps://wiki.seg.org/wiki/Seismic_Data_Analysis

  • Teaching methods

    Classroom lectures and experiments carried out in the laboratory and in the field.


    Assessment methods

    At the end of the laboratory activities, students must complete two separate reports for the refraction seismics and for the reflection seismics, respectively.

    The final test has the aim of ascertaining that the formation objectives are achieved and consists of an oral examination concerning theory as well as the experimental tests carried out in the laboratory and in the field. The typical exam duration is between one hour and one hour and a half.


    Teaching tools

    Slides projected in the classroom, laboratory.


    Office hours

    See the website of Alberto Armigliato

    See the website of Filippo Zaniboni