35301 - Veterinary Physiology Part 2

Academic Year 2023/2024

  • Docente: Diego Bucci
  • Credits: 6
  • SSD: VET/02
  • Language: Italian
  • Moduli: Diego Bucci (Modulo 1) Nadia Govoni (Modulo 2)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Veterinary Medicine (cod. 8617)

Learning outcomes

At the end of this course the student will acquire knowledge of the cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory, renal, and reproductive systems of domestic animals with emphasis on physiologic control mechanisms and interrelationships of body systems.

Course contents

The Syllabus of the course unit and the list of EAEVE Day One Competences that the course unit contributes to achieving can be viewed on the dedicated page


This course is part of the Integrated course in "Physiology II, ethology and endocrinology"


Frontal classes and seminars - Module 1 - Prof Bucci

Skeletal muscle. Muscle contraction. Mechanical properties of skeletal muscle. Mechanisms of muscular contraction. The cardiovascular system and blood flow. The heart: gross structure and myocardial cells. Electrophysiology of the heart. Mechanical activity and regulation of the heart. Control mechanisms of the circulatory systems. Regional and foetal circulations. Mechanics of respiration. Pulmonary ventilation. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Regulation of respiration. Respiratory clearance. Anatomy of the kidney. Glomerular filtration. Tubular transport. Renal clearance. Concentration of urine. Acid-base regulation and the excretion of bicarbonate, hydrogen ion and ammonia. Micturition.

At the end of each argument (muscle physiology, cardiocirulatory physiology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology), a clinical reasoning seminar will be organized.


Practice - Module 2 - Dr Govoni

  • Through the help of a digital support (Virtual Physiology - SimMuscle), students will have the opportunity to perform interactive exercises on some aspects of skeletal muscle physiology such as excitation-contraction coupling, single shock and tetanic contraction, muscle fatigue and isometric-isotonic contraction.
  • Auscultation of heart tones with the stethoscope. Evaluation of heart rate, ventilation rate and arterial pulse on small species.
  • Acquisition of a 3-lead electrocardiographic trace with verification of the correct positioning of the electrodes, analysis of the heart rate, and bases for the analysis of the P-QRS-T wave.
  • Evaluation of maximum and minimum arterial pressure using a manual aneroid sphygmomanometer. Discussion on the problems in measuring blood pressure in pets and instruments to use.
  • Evaluation of some chemical-physical characteristics of simulated urine samples: pH, specific weight, glycosuria and proteinuria. Discussion on the physiological significance of the different measurements found.

At the end of each activity multiple choice tests will be proposed to verify learning / self-assessment. During the test, students will have free access to teaching material and will be encouraged to interact with each other and with the teacher.


Klein G. B. Cunningham's Textbook of Veterinary Physiology, Elsevier ed. (2019).

Aguggini G., Beghelli V., Giulio L.F Fisiologia degli animali domestici con elementi di etologia,UTET, (1998).

Dukes', Fisiologia degli animali domestici Ed. IDELSON GNOCCHI (2002)

Sjaastad, Sand, Hove. Fisiologia degli Animali Domestici. Ed. It. a cura di C. Tamanini. CEA (2013)

Teaching methods

The course will be organized in frontal lessons, seminars for clinical reasoning and practices in groups in laboratory. 

Assessment methods

According to the actual regulations, attending the classes is mandatory; the student will be required to attend 75% of the practcal classes and 50% of the theoretical ones.

The final exam will be held in presence in  written form and it will be composed of open short-answer questions. In particular, the exam of the "Veterinary physiology II" teaching is composed of 80 questions: 60 - 1 point questions; 16 -2 points questions and 4 -4 points questions (total score 108 points) to assess both knowledge, competences and communication skills. The exam is passed with a score of 60/108 points and the vote will bi expressed as x/30. On demand of the students, the grid to tranpose the exame score in the vote is disposable.

The "Veterinary physiology II" exam will take up to 100 mins; if the student will to sustain the whole "integrated course" exam, it  will take up to 180 min.

The final grade of the integrated course "Veterinary physiology II, ethology and endocrinology" derives from the final assessments of the different courses that compose the integrated course, weighted on the CFU of each course. The Minimum passing grade is 18/30. The maximum grade is 30/30 (cum laude).

The student has the right to refuse the positive grade proposed twice (University teaching regulations ART. 16, paragraph 5).

EVALUATION OF STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS Particular attention will be given to the evaluation of students certified in accordance with Law 104/90 and Law 170/2010, or students who are recognized as having a special educational need. These students should contact the teacher by email, (cc the personnel form central offices for students with disability or with University SLD (https://site.unibo.it/studenti-con-disabilita-e-dsa/it). The person in charge of this service in our Department is Dr. Fabiana Trombetti.



Teaching tools

For the lessons slides will be used together with videos; interactive softwares as kahoot may be also used; for practices lab and ambulatory equipment will be used. A vitual physiology laboratory software is also available for students an will be used in the practices.

Office hours

See the website of Diego Bucci

See the website of Nadia Govoni


Good health and well-being Quality education Life on land

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.