00031 - Pathological Anatomy

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2023/2024

Learning outcomes

The student is expected to learn the pathological basis of the diseases, with special attention to the lesions of the head and neck region. In addition the students should know the most frequent diseases of the various organs.

Most attention is directed toward the lesions of the oral cavity and the head and neck region.

Specifically, in addition to the morphological features, the students should learn:

  1. Type of presentation of the disease and general epidemiology;
  2. when perform a biopsy
  3. how to interpret a histological report.
  4. The prognostic features of the different lesions, in order to organize adequate treatment and follow-up.

Course contents

Genetic disorders: general features; Marfan syndrome; neurofibromatosis; Von Hippel – Lindau disease.

Autoimmune disorders: Sjogren syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis.

Systemic disorders: sarcoidosis, amyloidosis.

Blood vessels: normal histology; aterosclerosis; aneurysms; angiomas and lynphangiomas; angiosarcoma.

Heart: normal histology and normal anatomy; hyschemic heart disease; heart infarct.

Lymph-nodes and spleen: normal histology and normal anatomy; lymphoadenitis; Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas; Langerhans cell hystiocytosis.

Upper respiratory tract and Lung: normal histology and normal anatomy, laryngeal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and benign lesions; acute pneumonia bacterial and viral; lung abscess; tuberculosis; interstitial pneumonia; pneumoconiosis (silicosis and asbestosis). Lung cancer: histological classification, differences between the various histotypes. Pleuritis, mesothelioma.

Salivary glands; normal histology and normal anatomy. Classification of salivary gland tumours. Pleomorphic adenoma; Warthin tumour; mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Adenoid-cystic carcinoma; epithelial-myoepithelial cell carcinoma; acinic cell carcinoma; ductal carcinoma of salivary glands.

Oral cavity: odontogenic cysts: classification (Malformative, inflammatory and neoplastic cysts) and discussion of the single entities. Ameloblastoma and its variants: Keratocyst: sporadic and familiar. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Pseudocysts: Non odontogenic cysts of the maxillary bones. Odontogenic tumours, classification and discussion of the single entities.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: precursor lesions, histological classification, prognostic factors and staging.

Gastro-intestinal tract: normal histology and normal anatomy. Esophagitis: focus on reflux and infective types. Drug induced esophageal lesions. Barrett esophagus and its relation with adenocaricnomas. Adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma.

Acute and chronic gastritis: etiology and histology. Intestinal metaplasia. Drug indiced gastri lesions; peptic ulcer; gastric carcinoma.

Chron disease; ulcerative colitis; megacolon; diverticulitis; aspcific colitis. Intestinal polyps: classification and their relation with intestinal adenocarcinoma. Familiar polyposis. Colo-rectal adenocarcinoma: etiology and prognostic factors. Familiar colo-rectal adenocarcinoma.

Liver: normal histology and normal anatomy. Alcohol liver disease. Drug induced liver injury. Acute and chronic epatits. Cirrhosis: Benign and malignant liver tumours.

Pancreas: normal histology and normal anatomy; acute and chronic pancreatitis; adenocarcinoma.

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas and GI tract.

Kidney: normal histology and normal anatomy; general concept on inflammatory lesions of the kidney with special attention on drug induced lesions. Benign and malignant tumours of the kidney.

Urinary bladder: normal histology and normal anatomy; acute and chronic cystitis; benign and malignant urothelial tumours.

Breast: normal histology and normal anatomy; benign lesions, cystic disease; breast carcinoma; gynecomastia and male breast cancer.

Endrocrine glands: normal histology and normal anatomy. The most frequent neoplastic lesions of pituitary gland, thyroid; adrenal gland.

Skin: normal histology and normal anatomy; seborrheic keratosis; keratoachantoma; actinic keratosis; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; nevi; lentigo maligna; melanoma (comprising oral melanoma).

Muscle and bone: normal histology and normal anatomy; rheumatoid arthritis; benign and malignant tumours of the bone and soft tissue, with special attention on the lesions arising in the head and neck district.

Central nervous system: normal histology and normal anatomy; cerebral edema, meningitis and brain abscess; brain infarct; brain haemorrhage; beingn and malignant tumours of the central and peripheral nervous system.


WHO: Head and Neck tumours. 2022.

Pelosi G, Sapino A, Maiorano E. Anatomia Patologica Funzionale. Edizioni Minerva Medica 2022.

Teaching methods

Oral presentations based on power point slides.

Discussion on clinical cases.

Assessment methods

Oral examniation based on the discussion of lesions of the head and neck region and of the other organs.

In addition histological slides will be discussed.

Teaching tools

Power point presentations, available in the IOL web-site.

Office hours

See the website of Maria Pia Foschini

See the website of Sofia Asioli