Course Unit Page

  • Teacher Marina Collina

  • Learning modules Marina Collina (Modulo Mod 1)
    Marina Collina (Modulo Mod 2)

  • Credits 6

  • SSD AGR/12

  • Teaching Mode Traditional lectures (Modulo Mod 1)
    Traditional lectures (Modulo Mod 2)

  • Language Italian

  • Campus of Bologna

  • Degree Programme Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Agricultural Sciences and Technologies (cod. 9235)

  • Course Timetable from Feb 21, 2023 to Mar 29, 2023

    Course Timetable from Apr 04, 2023 to May 17, 2023


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Zero hunger Good health and well-being Climate Action Life on land

Academic Year 2022/2023

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the student has acquired a general framework on the management of the adversities of plants towards a productive sustainability of both integrated and biological approaches. It is able to evaluate the opportunity to apply the main plant protection means also against the current phytosanitary emergencies present and potential for the Italian territory taking into account climate change.

Today, even more than in the past, we cannot talk about plant protection without considering general diagnostic aspects of the most common diseases together with the management of "alien" adversities that more or less incidentally enter our territories, become phytosanitary emergencies causing considerable damage to the agricultural sector concerned. The course aims to train the student also on general and specific aspects related to these emergencies highlighting, also with the help of seminars held by experts of the Phytosanitary Services, the extreme importance of prevention that, together with the specific public bodies, the individual citizen is also called to play.

Course contents


The student must know the bases of plant pathology as well the biology and epidemiology of the most important pathogens spread in central and northern Italy.

Contents (50 hours)

Introduction to the course: present and future of plant protection from biotic enemies (Green Deal and Farm to Fork)

Principles of diagnostics of plant diseases: diagnosis and case history, general symptomatologic pictures. Epidemiology and interaction of pathogens with the environment: endemic diseases, epidemics and pandemics. Sources and materials of inoculum. Storage and dissemination of inoculum material.

Phytosanitary surveillance: the increase of the commercial exchanges and the free circulation of the goods have also increased the risks linked to spread of plant damaging organisms. To limit these risks, circulation of plants and vegetal products is submitted to international prophylaxis measures established from the International Convention for plant protection and in specific European Regulations. They will be defined: harmful organism, closed and open market, official structures of reference and faced normative mentions (Regulation (EC) 2031/2016). Italian Regions must apply on own territory international and community rules on phytosanitary topic, then the teacher will organize specific seminars held from experts of Regional Plant protection Services.

Prophylaxis and Therapy Concepts: Characterization of the cultural (crop rotation, soil management, chose varietal and rootstocks, irrigation, fertilization, biofumigation), physical (solarization and use of vapour) and genetic (passive and active) means together to the knowledge of technology innovations regarding the integrated and organic approaches especially those with low pesticide input to decrease environmental impact. Then will be provided mentions to the control means of chemical synthesis and natural origin (definition of Plant Protection Product, Basic product, etc.).

Elements related to control means: Principles of toxicology of Plant Protection Products (PPP) and their correct interpretation of label and safety data sheet information, correct usage of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), Resistance to Plant Protection Products.

Practical activity (10 hours)

Visits to research centres/exhibitions.


Fundamental will be notes and slides from the lessons available on the web site (Virtuale)

For further information the following books are recommended:

- Matta A., Buonaurio R., Favaron F., Scala A., Scala F., 2017 – Fondamenti di Patologia Vegetale. Piccin

- Vannacci G., Bianco P.A., Bonanomi G., Brunelli A., Gonthier P., Lorito M., Polizzi G., Rossi V., Sarocco S., Scortichini M., 2021 – Patologia Vegetale. EdiSES Università

Teaching methods

The course will be mainly carried out by Dr. Marina Collina. The teaching includes a part of lectures and a part of exercises that will take place through at least one educational visit. Experts from the Regional Phytosanitary Services will also participate through thematic seminars. The frequency of lessons is considered particularly useful for passing the exam.

Assessment methods

The verification of learning will be organised by written examination with 30 questions (10 open and 20 with multiple choice response). The time available will be of 90 minutes. Registration in “Almaesami” is mandatory; the opening of the enrolment list will be 7-10 days before the examination date and it will be closed two days before the examination date. If you decide not to take the exam on the date booked, you must cancel your name before the closing date of the list.

The lessons and the teaching material are in Italian as well as the written exercise. The Erasmus student can answer to the questions in English

Teaching tools

PC and projector for class lectures, learning journey, teaching material

Office hours

See the website of Marina Collina