00269 - Electronics

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2022/2023

Learning outcomes

The student will be able to analyse linear and non-linear circuits for analogue and digital applications. He will be able to design the basic circuit blocks for the amplification and processing of analogue and digital signal.

Course contents

Module 1: Analog Electronics

1. Linear networks

Recalls on the methods for the analysis of linear circuits; Kirchhoff's laws; voltage and current dividers, Thevenin and Norton equivalent bipoles.

Power dissipation in electronic circuits.

Definition of voltage, current and power gains.



2.
Diodes and Transistors circuits

Basic characteristics of semiconductors: energy bands, doping; conduction in semiconductors (drift-diffusion equations).

Junction diode: basic structure and principle of operation; I-V characteristics; constant-voltage-drop approximation.

Analysis of circuits including diodes; half-wave and full-wave rectifiers.

MOS Transisstor: principle of operation; regions of operation; simplified analytical model for the static I-V characteristics; body effect. DC analysis of simple circuits with MOSFETs.


The P-channel MOSFET.

Introduction to the concepts of bias, linearization and small signal analysis.

Analysis of the four-resistors bias circuit; desensitization with respect to the dispersion of electrical parameters and to the temperature.

Small signal equivalent low-frequency circuits for the diode and for the MOSFET.

Basic elementary small-signal amplifiers: common source, common gate, common drain.

Cascaded amplifiers: AC and DC couplings. Analysis of transistor amplifiers by decomposition into elementary stages. MOSFET differential amplifier.

Basic current mirror.



3. Operational Amplifier (OPAMP)

Introduction to the operational amplifier; main characteristics and ideal model; concept of “virtual short-circuit”.

Inverting amplifier with OPAMP: quiescent point; analysis of the signal voltage gain with ideal OPAMP and assuming a finite differential voltage gain; input differential resistance (for ideal OPAMP).

Analysis of simple amplifiers and filters: non-inverting amplifier; voltage buffer; differential amplifier; instrumentation amplifier; integrator; differentiator; first-order low-pass and high-pass filters.

Instrumentation amplifier.


Main non-ideal effects: finite gain and input-output resistances; voltage offset; bias currents; current and voltage limitations; slew-rate.

3. Frequency-domain (AC) analysis of linear circuits

  • Transfer functions of linear lumped- and time-independent elements networks.

  • low-pass, high-pass and band-pass transfer characteristics.

  • First-order low-pass, high-pass, band-pass passive and active filters.

Module 2: Circuits for Digital Electronics

  • Performance, features and factors of merits of digital circuits and logic families.

  • Operating principles, electrical characteristics, models for large and small signals for junction diodes and MOS transistors.

  • MOS static logics: FCMOS, pseudo-n-MOS, pass transistor logics.

  • MOS dynamic logics. CMOS Domino, np-logics.

  • Sequential logic circuits.

  • Power consumption in digital circuits.

  • Semiconductor memories

Readings/Bibliography

Richard C. Jaeger, T. N. Blalock: Microelettronics, McGraw-Hill

David Esseni,
Fondamenti di Circuiti Digitali Integrati
SGEditoriali Padova
ISBN 88-89884-01-0

J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, B. Nikolic
Digital Integrated Circuits, A design Perspective
Prentice Hall.

Teaching methods

Theoretical lessons and exercises concerning the analysis and the design of simple analog circuits.

Within the module 1 (analogue circuits) home-works are proposed to the students during the teaching period through the "Virtuale" platform. Such exercises helps the students to understand the contents and concepts provided the teacher during classes and provide a systematic approach for the preparation of the final exam.

Recordings of some lessons dealing with specific contents and concepts, will be available in order to overcome possible issues related to the students' learning process. 

Assessment methods

The exam is divided into two parts related to the two teaching modules

Module 1:

Written exam divided into two sections:

1) questions concerning the theory and the main concepts provided by the course.

2) analysis of analogue circuits based on BJTs and OPAMP.

Module 2

exam divided into two sections

written exam concerning the analysis and design of simple digital circuits

oral exam concerning the theory and the main concepts provided by the course

Teaching tools

Slide projector and power points presentations.

Distance-teaching tools to facilitate the interaction between students and teachers as a complement to classes teaching.

Recordings of some teaching modules featuring difficult learning or presentation problems and particularly important concepts.

Office hours

See the website of Claudio Fiegna

See the website of Enrico Sangiorgi