94004 - Laboratory of Radiofrequency and Antennas

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education Affordable and clean energy Industry, innovation and infrastructure

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student: - Knows the operating principles of radiofrequency circuits in planar technology (microstrip) based on the propagation of the associated modes. - Knows the analytical and numerical calculation methods for the design of matching networks and RF filters and has a good practice of CAD tools for RF printed circuits. - Knows the design methods of RF antennas and can characterize simple RF antennas, such as printed dipoles and patch antennas, and their applications in the field of RFID systems and (Radiofrequency IDentification) of the IoT (Internet of Things). - Knows the basics of RF propagation in simple environments - Can characterize a radio link in a realistic environment.

Course contents

  • Analytical and numerical models for the design of simple antennas for wireless nodes: monopoles, dipoles, loop, and patch antennas.
  • Circuit characterization in terms of one-port and multi-port RF / microwave circuits in terms of  incident and reflected waves, as an alternative to the more traditional representation.
  • Planar structures: the microstrip, main characteristics. Examples of some RF / microwave passive components, and their realization in microstrip.
  • Use of circuit and electromagnetic simulators, AWR and CST, for the numerical validation of the analytical models of microwave components and antennas.
  • CAD design of impedance matching networks and simple antennas using AWR and CST
  • Realization of prototypes of the designed components (e.g. patch antennas, printed dipoles) and experimental characterization using VNA and mini-anechoic chamber
  • Realization of a wireless link and its characterization


Teaching notes.

For further information:

V. Rizzoli, D. Masotti, "Lezioni di sistemi d'antenna", Esculapio.

C. A. Balanis, "Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design", Wiley.

D. Pozar, "Microwave engineering", Wiley

Teaching methods

Power point presentations; sessions to verify the understanding of the topics through group work; experimental measurements sessions in RF lab.

In consideration of the type of activity and the teaching methods adopted, the attendance of this training activity requires the prior participation of all students in training modules 1 and 2 on safety in the study places, [https://elearning-sicurezza.unibo.it /] in e-learning mode

Assessment methods

Attending students: the verification of learning takes place through the delivery, during the course and within predetermined times, of simple exercises of antennas or circuits design assigned by the teacher, and reports of group activities carried out in the laboratory. The exam will be completed by an individual oral interview to decide the final marks.

Non-attending students: for those who have not followed the course, or have not fully completed the assigned projects and laboratory activities, the exam will consist of a computer design test, using one of the CAD tools introduced during the course (CST or AWR), followed by an oral interview.


To be able to take the exam it is mandatory to register on ALMAEsami: for each exam session, 2 separate registration lists will be prepared, one for the practical test (only for non-attending students), the other one for the oral test (for all students).

The purpose of the exam is to verify the student's ability to apply his or her knowledge to practical problems, and to make the necessary logical-deductive connections.

Criteria for the assigmnent of the final marks:

Poor knowledge of the topics of the course, inadequate capacity for critical analysis and analysis / solution of practical problems; incorrect or inappropriate expression will result in a negative evaluation. In case of insufficient marks, students will have to repeat the test.

Preparation on a very limited number of topics covered in the course, very limited autonomy in solving practical problems and analytical skills that emerge only with the help of the teacher, expression in overall correct language → 18-19;

Preparation on a limited number of topics covered in the course, limited autonomy in solving practical problems and autonomous analysis skills only on purely executive matters, expression in correct language → 20-24;

Preparation on a large number of topics covered in the course, good autonomy in solving practical problems and ability to make autonomous choices of critical analysis, mastery of specific terminology → 25-29;

Excellent ability to critically analyze the topics covered and excellent ability to express and argue; excellent competence and ability to apply knowledge to practical problems independently → 30-30L.

Teaching tools

Personal computer, commercial software tools for RF/microwave wireless system characterization, such as Cadence AWR and CST Microwave studio.

Office hours

See the website of Enrico Maria Vitucci