93768 - Synchrotron Radiation and its Applications

Course Unit Page

SDGs

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student understands the basic notions regarding the principal spectroscopic experimental techniques based on synchrotron radiation sources, with emphasis on the underlying chemistry. The student will learn the essentials of the X-ray experimental methods such as X-Ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and photoemission

Course contents

OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE:

The aim of this unit are:

to provide the students with a broad overview of different analysis techniques using synchrotron radiation

to develop the skills of the students to elucidate electronic and geometric structure elucidation of the matter by applying various complementary spectroscopies using synchrotron radiation source

to highlight modern advances in instrumentation and analysis techniques within synchrotron radiation field

PREREQUISITES

To successfully attend this class, the student should know element of:

Quantum Chemistry/XRD/Optical Spectroscopy

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

Part I : Syncrothron radiation and interaction of the matter with light

1-Genral introduction to the Syncrothron radiation sources

2-Physical phenomena involved in the emission of syncrothron light

3-Equipement for emission of syncorthron light: magnetic devices, optical instruments and pumping systems

4- Example of Synchrotron beamline setup (optics: slits, crystal monochromator, detection: ionization chamber, fluorescence detection…)

5-The interaction of the matter with light (absorption, emission, scattering, florescence)

Part II : Core level spectrosocopies using syncrothron radiaition

1- XAS (X-ray Absorption Spectrosocpy) : EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) + XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure)

- Physical phenomena: photoelectric effect, origin of fine structure, interference effect, EXAFS oscillations, EXAFS spectrum

- EXAFS equation

- Data processing : normalization , extraction of background , fourrier transformation

- Fitting of the EXAFS equation

- XANES region of XAS spectra : multiple scattering, predege structure, dipole transition

- XANES at K edge and L2,3 edge of 3d and 4d transition metal

- What we learn from XANES: oxidation state and local geometry

- Operando and in situ measurements of XAS

2- XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy)

- Introduction to XPS :Photoelectric effect, instrumentation, binding energies, spin orbit coupling, XPS spectra, qualitative analysis, quantitative XPS (XPS equation) , XPS fit

- XPS with syncrothron radiation source : benefit (spectral resolution, time resolution, polarization) and drawbacks (charge effect)

- NAP-XPS : spectrometer operating at near ambiant pressure

3- XES (X-ray Emission Spectroscopy) and RIXS (Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering)

- Creation of core hole , decay of core hole, assignement of X ray emission line

- The XES and RIXS process

- Relation of the RIXS to other spectrosocpies (XAS,XES, EELS)

- Instrumentation (Hard RIXS)

- RIXS map and the three line cuts

- High-Energy Resolution Fluorescence Detected (HERFD) XAS

- Site selective XAS

- What we can learn form RIXS : examples of application

Part III: other spectroscopies using synchrotron radiation

Benefit of the use of SR in other experimental techniques: Infrared spectroscopy (high resolution, large spectral domain), X-Ray diffraction (high resolution, use of hard X-Rays, protein crystallography …).

Introduction to tomography and imaging.

Introduction to Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

Readings/Bibliography

All the material is specified in the Teaching Methods section.

Other specific material will be given by the teacher.

Reference book (not mandatory):

“Synchrotron Radiation. Basics, Methods and Applications”

Editors: Mobilio, Settimio, Boscherini, Federico, Meneghini, Carlo (Eds.), Springer 2015.

ISBN 978-3-642-55315-8

Teaching methods

Synchrotron application and its application is an online module operating jointly at the Universities of Lille, bologna, and Leipzig. Lectures will be available online (e-learning). Students will have access to:

1- Videos showing sample preparation

2- Video showing the acquisition of spectra.

3- PowerPoint presentations with voice-over. The slides deal with the physical phenomenon involved on each spectroscopy, the data processing and the chemical information (electronic and/or structural information of the matter) that can be accessed.

Once the student visualize the video and presentations, he/she must answer to MCQ (multiple choice questions) to self-assessment. Different articles, documents and book references dealing with the different analysis techniques will also be available in the ASC platform (a link for that will be provided through the virtuale.unibo.it platform)

A forum of questions allowing to the students to ask questions to the experts and also to discuss among themselves about the course will be available in the ASC platform.

Some other lectures will be provided in the form of presentations given by different experts of analysis techniques using synchrotron radiation.

TEACHING STAFF:

Asma Tougerti: asma.tougerti@univ-lille1.fr [mailto:asma.tougerti@univ-lille1.fr] (Responsible of the course unit in Lille)

Eric Marceau: eric.marceau@univ-lille1.fr [mailto:eric.marceau@univ-lille1.fr]

Sylvain Cristol: sylvain.cristol@univ-lille1.fr [mailto:sylvain.cristol@univ-lille1.fr]

Reinhard Denecke: denecke@uni-leipzig.de [mailto:denecke@uni-leipzig.de] (Responsible of the course unit in Leipzig)

Marco Giorgetti: marco.giorgetti@unibo.it (Responsible of the course unit in Bologna)

Assessment methods

The final examination will determine the level reached by the student in the objectives set out in the "Learning outcomes”. The assessment of the learning consists in a written examination.

Teaching tools

1- Videos showing sample preparation

2- Video showing the acquisition of spectra.

3- PowerPoint presentations with voice-over.

All this is made available to the student electronically via the ASC and iol.unibo.it websites. Username and password are reserved for UNIBO students via the unibo credential.

Links to further information

http://www.master-asc.org/

Office hours

See the website of Marco Giorgetti