28014 - Foundations of Telecommunications T

Course Unit Page

  • Teacher Carlo Caini

  • Credits 9

  • SSD ING-INF/03

  • Teaching Mode Traditional lectures

  • Language Italian

  • Campus of Bologna

  • Degree Programme First cycle degree programme (L) in Computer Engineering (cod. 9254)

  • Teaching resources on Virtuale


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education Industry, innovation and infrastructure Reduced inequalities

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

Basic knowledge on Fourier analysis (continous- and discrete-time signals) and linear systems. Introduction to communication networks. Introduction to ISO-OSI model and TCP/IP protcols.

Course contents

Fourier Analysis (time-continuous signals)
Analysis in the frequency domain of deterministic time-continuous signals. Fourier Series; Fourier Transforms; Dirac's Delta; Fourier transform of distributions (generalized functions), step signals and periodic signals.
Fourier Analysis (time-discrete signals)
Analysis in the frequency domain of deterministic time-discrete signals. Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Nyquist-Shannon's sampling theorem, Shannon's series, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), FFT.
Linear systems
Definition of linearity. Impulse response and transfer function of time-invarying linear systems. Non distortion conditions. Ideal, real and FIR filters.
Analog to digital conversion
Analog to digital conversion (PCM).
Generalized Fourier Analysis
Cross and auto correlation functions of deterministic signals. Energy and power spectra.
Modulation Theory
Introduction; analogue modulations (AM, PM, FM, DSB-SC, QAM).

Digital signals

Digital PAM signals. Power spectra of deterministic PAM signals. Extension to ergodic random signals. Bipolar and multi-level encoding, power spectra of multi-level PAM signals. Basic elements of digital modulations, including OFDM. General description of phisical layer of WiFi (IEEE 802.11n, ac and ax).

ISO-OSI model and TCP-IP protocols
Network architectures: layers, protocols and services. ISO-OSI and TCP-IP models.
Layer 2 (link)

Link layer services. Basics of Ethernet (10, 100 e 1000 Mbit/s); CSMA/CD protocol; basics of IEEE 802.11 (WiFi); CSMA-CA protocol, MAC addresses, hubs e switches.
Layer 3 (Network)
Network layer services; connection oriented and connectionless protocols (datagram), logical addresses, routing table, IPv4, basics of IPv6, NATs.
Layer 4 (Transport)
Transport services; UDP and TCP protocols (ACK, retransmission mechanisms, flow control, congestion control); ports.
Basics of “challenged networks” and of DTN (Delay-/Disruption-Tolerant Networking) architecture.


Lecture notes (in Italian only) provided via web (IOL) on the first part of the course.

Slides provided via web (IOL) on the second part of the course.


A.S. Tanenbaum, "Computer Networks", Pearsons, 5th edition

Teaching methods

Lectures and lab activities.

Assessment methods

Written and oral examinations. No intermediate (i.e. during the courses) assessments. The examinations will be carried out in January, February, June-July (3 dates), September. The questions of the written test (in Italian only) can include quizzes, theory questions and excercises. The oral examination is compulsory and will follow on the same day or on the next few days.

Teaching tools

Goldwave audio editor for activities related to audio signals and linear systems. Wireshark protcol analyzer for TCP/IP protcol analysis. Other programs and Excel spreadsheets.

Office hours

See the website of Carlo Caini