02715 - Nutritional Physiology

Course Unit Page

SDGs

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being Quality education

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

Knowledge of the physiological processes underlying the vegetative functions and their regulatory systems. Notions about the digestive functions, of the food/water homeostasis and of the nutrition guidelines.

Course contents

FUNCTIONS OF GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

Functional anatomy of gastrointestinal system
Structure of the gastrointestinal tract wall. Splanchnic circulation. Innervation of gastrointestinal system. Nervous regulation of functions of gastrointestinal system: enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation, reflex activity. Hormonal regulation of gastrointestinal functions.

Motility of gastrointestinal system
Chewing. Swallowing. Motility of esophagus. Gastric motility: filling of stomach, movements of mixing and emptying of gastric contents. Vomiting. Emptying of gall bladder. Motility of small intestine, of large intestine and of rectum. Defecation.

Secretion of gastrointestinal system
Salivary secretion: functions of saliva, secretion mechanisms and their regulation in physiological conditions. Gastric
secretion. Hydrochloric acid: its functions, secretion mechanism and its regulation in physiological conditions. Pepsinogen: its functions, secretion
mechanism and its regulation in physiological conditions. Mucus secretion. Gastrin secretion. Pancreatic secretion: mechanisms of exocrine pancreatic secretion. Bicarbonate ions in pancreatic secretion; enzymes in pancreatic secretion. Regulation of pancreatic secretion in physiological conditions. Bile secretion: bile salts and thier rule in digestive process. Intestinal secretions.

Digestion and absorption
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Digestion and absorption of proteins. Digestion and absorption of fats; role of bile salts in digestion and absorption of fats. Absorption of water and minerals: regulation of intestinal absorption of water and ions. Absorption of calcium and iron.

Functions of liver

Digestive, vascular and metabolic functions of liver.


ALIMENTARY HOMEOSTASIS AND NUTRITIONAL CONSUMPTION

Regulation of food and water intake
Mechanism of thirst. Nervous centers controlling food intake. Factors controlling the amount of food. Short and long-term regulation.

Regulation of body weight
Energy balance. Body composition and methods for its assessment. Loss of weight and effects on fat mass and fat-free mass.

Alimentary behaviour
Alimentary behaviour disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia, binge-eating disorder. Obesity and its causes. Obesity and pregnancy. Caloric restriction. Useful methods to loose weight. Brown fat: functions and metabolism.

Nutritional consumption
Nutritional consumption in particular physiological states: diet during early childhood, adolescence; pregnancy, feeding; and during third age. Artificial nutrition: enteral and parenteral nutrition.

Metabolism
Basal metabolic rate. Energy metabolism and its regulation systems. Direct calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry. Factors that influence energy metabolism.

Muscle activity
Muscle activity and energy expenditure: physiological aspects.

Readings/Bibliography

- Alimentazione, Nutrizione e Salute, Debellis-Poli, Edises.

- Fisiologia e nutrizione umana, Andreoli, Societa’ editrice ESCULAPIO.

- Fisiologia medica. Guyton & Hall, Elsevier-Masson Ed., XIII edizione italiana, 2016.

- FISIOLOGIA dalle molecole ai sistemi integrati. Carbone, Cicirata & Aicardi et al., EdiSES 2009.

Libri di consultazione:

- Elementi essenziali di alimentazione e nutrizione umana, Pignati C, Societa’ editrice ESCULAPIO.

- Alimenti e fisiologia della nutrizione nell'uomo. Canella-LibreriaUniversitaria.it.

- Fisiologia – un approccio integrato. Silverthorn. Casa Ed Ambrosiana, 2007.

- Fisiologia generale e umana. Rhoades e Pflanzer, Piccin, II ed. italiana sulla IV americana, 2004.

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons with video projections of Power Point presentations. Interactive methods (e.g. Kahoot, Quizizz, etc…) learned in recent didactic laboratories of UNIBO will also be added, so to have a richer interaction among students and between students and professor.

Assessment methods

Oral examination. The student will present two different subjects from the program, chosen by the examiner. The student needs to have a sufficient preparation on both topics, in order to pass the examination.

The exam will evaluate if the student has reached all the aims of the course:

Knowledge of the physiological processes underlying the vegetative functions and their regulatory systems. Notions about the digestive functions, of the food/water homeostasis and of the nutrition guidelines.

Expression skills, and the knowledge about the links between the course contents will be evaluated with excellent scores.

Teaching tools

Power point presentations.

Office hours

See the website of Annalisa Bosco