78001 - Theories of Ontology (1) (LM)

Course Unit Page

SDGs

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education Life on land Peace, justice and strong institutions Partnerships for the goals

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

The aim of the course is to make known and discuss the main positions regarding the theme of "being" in the sphere of the whole philosophical thought, with particular reference to modern and contemporary age. In this regard, the investigation of the principles, laws and structures requires to be related to the original situation of man as being in the world, to his intentional modalities and his forms of objectification of reality. This theoretical knowledges will be used to recognize and understand the concrete areas in which the ontological theories are applied, with particular attention to the characteristics of the scientific investigation and the experiential forms which structure the different visions of reality and which do not concern a mere discourse on 'being', but a being that manifests itself in the human discourse on the world. This is obtained through the knowledge of the different theories of abstraction and the formation of concepts, the understanding of the notion of truth, the investigation of the functions of language and theories of experience, the examination of the metaphysical assumptions that determine the understanding of reality, of the criteria for identifying objects. The aim of the course is to grasp and analyze the ontological determinations present in the various currents of Western philosophy (naturalism, idealism, realism, empiricism, rationalism, positivism, materialism, spiritualism, etc.), moving in particular from perspectives of critical-transcendental, phenomenological and logical-linguistic investigations. The tools useful for achieving this knowledge are reading and analyzing texts, acquiring a basic vocabulary adapted to the orientation of students in order to ontological problems, reading and understanding of the secondary literature to face the issues concerning subjectivity and objectivity in relation to the different senses of reality.

Course contents

LOGIC AND ONTOLOGY IN WITTGENSTEIN'S TRACTATUS

The rise and development of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus logico-philosophicus (1918 / 1921-1922) – the only book he ever published and one of the fundamental texts of contemporary philosophy – will be examined through a philosophical-cultural contextualization and the discussion of the most important passages. From Tractatus draws inspiration not only the currents of neo-positivism and analytical philosophy, but also the fundamental philosophical issues of contemporary thought, such as the relationship between reality, knowledge and language.

Distribution of topics in lectures:

of the 15 lectures available (all will be recorded):
• 3 will be dedicated to a historical-philosophical introduction to the "first" Wittgenstein;
• 12 will be dedicated to the discussion and commentary of the text.

Start of lectures and place:

  • The lectures will begin on Monday, January 31, 2022, in classroom A, via Zamboni 34, and will be held every Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday from 5 to 7 pm.
  • NOTE: all lectures will be recorded and made available. On this same page, the download link for each lecture will be indicated.

Readings/Bibliography

Warning: "attending" means all those who attend the lectures in presence or online; "non attending" those who do not attend in presence or have not the opportunity to access online lectures.

 

Obligatory readings for all students:

  • L. Wittgenstein, Tractatus logico-philosophicus e Quaderni 1914-1916, ed. by A.G. Conte, Einaudi, Turin, 1998 (or other editions), pp. 3-109 (Introduction of  B. Russell + text of the Tractatus). It will be available in the "teaching material".
  • Slides and notes progressively deposited in the "teaching material".


Optional readings for attending students:

NOTE: the obligatory text and the teaching material made available (to which special attention must be paid), are sufficient to pass the exam with maximum profit. 

For an introduction to Wittgenstein's thought:

  • L. Guidetti, G. Matteucci, Le grammatiche del pensiero, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2012, volume 3 B, Unità 9: Wittgenstein e l'analisi del linguaggio, pp. 616-663.
  • A.G. Gargani, Introduzione a Wittgenstein, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 1988 (or other editions).
  • L. Perissinotto, Introduzione a Wittgenstein, il Mulino, Bologna 2018.
  • D. Marconi, Guida a Wittgenstein, Laterza, Roma-Bari 2002.

On the Tractatus, the best italian commentary is:

  • P. Frascolla, Il Tractatus logico-philosophicus di Wittgenstein. Un'introduzione alla lettura, Carocci, Roma 2006.

 

Readings (obligatory and optional) for non attending students

  • L. Perissinotto, Introduzione a Wittgenstein, il Mulino, Bologna 2018 (obligatory).
  • D. Marconi, Guida a Wittgenstein, Laterza, Roma-Bari 2002 (optional).
  • L. Guidetti, G. Matteucci, Le grammatiche del pensiero, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2012, volume 3 B, Unità 9: Wittgenstein e l'analisi del linguaggio, pp. 616-663. (optional)
  • A.G. Gargani, Introduzione a Wittgenstein, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 1988 (o edizioni successive). (optional).
  • P. Frascolla, Il Tractatus logico-philosophicus di Wittgenstein. Un'introduzione alla lettura, Carocci, Roma 2006. (optional).

Teaching methods

Lectures, reading and commentary on texts and on primary sources, discussion on specific issues.

Assessment methods

Oral test with verification of specific historical and philosophical knowledge and of the level of assimilation and processing critical-conceptual content (see "Evaluation board". Each entry has a maximum of 10 points, for a total of 30 points + possible laude).

Assessment criteria and thresholds of evaluation:

30 cum laude: Excellent as to knowledge, terminology and critical expression.

30: Excellent, knowledge is complete, well articulated and correctly expressed, although with some slight faults.

27-29: Good, knowledge comprehensive and satisfactory, essentially correct expression .

24-26: Fairly good, knowledge present in significant points, but not complete and not always expressed with correctness.

21-23: Sufficient, knowledge is sometimes superficial, but the guiding general thread is included. Expression and articulation incomplete and often not appropriate

18-21:.Almost sufficient, but knowledge present only on the surface. The guiding principle is not included with continuity. The expression and articulation of the speech show important gaps.

<18: Not sufficient, knowledge absent or very incomplete, lack of guidance in discipline, expression seriously deficient. Exam failed.

Teaching tools

Overhead Projector with PC.

Links to further information

http://www.disciplinefilosofiche.it

Office hours

See the website of Luca Guidetti