02359 - General Pathology and Physiopathology (AK-A)

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

No poverty Good health and well-being Quality education Partnerships for the goals

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

The students will learn the etiology of the disease processes, the pathogenetic mechanism of their development, the basic reactions to abnormal stimuli and the morphological changes they induce in cells and tissues, together with the systemic and functional consequences for the organism. By the elaboration of molecular, morphologic, microbiologic and immunologic knowledges, the students will understand the wherefores of the signs and symptoms manifested by patients and will be provided with a sound foundation for evidence based medicine.

Course contents

Each line of text (excluding titles) corresponds approximately to one hour teaching unit



Aim of the course

Concept of disease, etiology and pathogenesis


Physical injuries

Local and systemic effects of high and low temperatures
Smoke damage

Chemical injuries

Ethanol: absorption and detoxification
Ethanol: acute and chronic toxic effects

Pathology from biological agents

Local and systemic effects of endotoxins
Pathogenic action of exotoxins (diphtheria, cholera, tetanus and botulinum)


Cellular adaptations

Metaplasia and dysplasia

Cell jnjury

Etiopathogenesis of cellular damage
Vacuolar degeneration
Steatosis: etiology and classification
Steatosis: pathogenic mechanisms

Cell death

Apoptosis: etiopathogenesis
Apoptosis: morphological alterations
Necrosis: etiopathogenesis
Necrosis: morphological alterations and classification


Systemic amyloidosis
Localized amyloidosis


Acute inflammation

General characteristics
Vascular phenomena
Exudative oedema
Cell phenomena
Chemical mediators: plasma proteases
Chemical mediators: cellular products
Classification of acute inflammations
Outcomes and systemic effects

Chronic inflammation

Chronicization of acute forms
Granulomatous forms
Etiopathogenesis of the tuberculous disease
Outcomes and consequences of tuberculosis


Granulation tissue
Wound healing
Morphology of cirrhotic liver and consequences


Pathophysiology of haemostasis

Pathophysiology of endothelial cells
Etiopathogenesis of vascular purpura
Etiopathogenesis of thrombocytopenia and thromboastenia
Etiopathogenesis of coagulation defects
Etiopathogenesis of disseminated intravascular coagulation

Pathophysiology of vessels and circulation

Classification of arteriosclerosis
Risk factors of atherosclerosis
Pathogenesis of atheroma
Consequences of atherosclerosis
Etiopathogenesis of thrombosis
Classification of thrombosis
Etiology and classification of the emboli
Pathogenesis and consequences of embolism
Etiopathogenesis of the infarction
Etiopathogenesis of hypertension
Etiopathogenesis of shock
Etiopathogenesis of hypoxia and cyanosis
Hypoxic, anemic, stagnant and histotoxic hypoxia

Pathophysiology of the endocrine system and metabolism

Etiopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus
Consequences of diabetes
Etiopathogenesis of transudative edema
Localized and generalized transudative edema
Calcium metabolism
Dystrophic and metastatic calcifications

Pathophysiology of thermoregulation

Etiopathogenesis of fever and non-febrile hyperthermias


V. Kumar, A.K. Abbas, J.C. Aster. “Robbins & Cotran - Pathologic Basis of Disease, 10th edition, 2020, Elsevier Ed.

Pontieri G.M. “Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia Generale", VI Edizione, 2019, Piccin Editore

Teaching methods

The course includes 64 hours of lessons on environmental, cellular and extracellular pathology, inflammatory-reparative response and general pathophysiology.

Assessment methods

The learning level will be assessed at the end of classes. The examination is unique for all the subjects of the Integrated Course and it will consist of two questions. One of the two questions will include a practical microscopy test to assess the learning of the General Pathology Laboratory. The online registration to the exam through Alma Esami is mandatory

The exam aims to evaluate the knowledge acquired by the student on the course contents in order to achieve the educational goals. The exam assesses the student ability to frame the topic of general pathology or pathophysiology on which they are questioned and to expose it by making the necessary logical-deductive connections. The coherence of the conceptual succession and the appropriateness of the scientific language are further elements of evaluation. The examination of the General Pathology and Pathophysiology Course includes the observation and oral description of a microscopic preparation up to the recognition of the specific histopathological picture. The student must be able to discuss the morphological alterations of a histopathological specimen, in relation to the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired on the subject during the course.

Graduation of the final grade

18-20: knowledge of the basic concepts without serious gaps. Exposition of concepts and language as a whole acceptable.

21-25: knowledge of the basic concepts without gaps. Ability to analyze and link in partial autonomy. Exposure of discrete concepts and language.

26-29: preparation of good or very good level or even excellent preparation but with inaccuracies in the presentation that compromise the achievement of full marks. Ability to analyze and link independently. Exposure of concepts in the right succession and mastery of the language.

30-30L: full preparation, consolidated and without inaccuracies on the topics covered in the course. Ability to promptly frame the topic. Ability to analyze and connect independently. Concepts in the right succession and full command of the specific language.

The final grade derives from the collegial evaluation carried out by the teachers who examined the student.

Teaching tools

Slides containing schemes and figures will be projected during lessons. This educational material is available online at https://virtuale.unibo.it/

Office hours

See the website of Andrea Bolognesi