05181 - Physiology

Course Unit Page

SDGs

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being Quality education

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the Course the student knows human body functions under their different and progressively more complex levels of organization (cell, tissue, organ, system) and the modalities through which these functions are integrated and regulated. The student is able to understand how the living organism gets and maintains body fluid homeostasis at molecular, cellular and tissue level under the challenges from the external environment. Moreover, from the unitary solutions of animal evolution understands both the general aspects of the laws of physiology and their possible application to human body functions.

Course contents

EXCHANGE PROCESSES BETWEEN THE CELL AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Composition of intracellular and extracellular fluids. Passive and active exchange processes.

RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL AND ACTION POTENTIAL

Membrane ion channels. Resting membrane potential. Excitable cells. Genesis and propagation of the action potential.

SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION

Chemical and electrical synapses. General information on neurotransmitters and receptors.
SKELETAL, SMOOTH and CARDIAC MUSCLE

Skeletal muscle. Mechanism of muscle contraction. Neuromuscular transmission. Motor unit and gradation of contraction force. Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle: regulation of contraction.

SOMATIC SENSIBILITY

Tactile, proprioceptive, thermic and pain pathways. Nociceptive and neuropatic pain. Hyperalgesia and referred pain. Central and peripheral control of pain.  

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE ENDOCRINE FUNCTION

General principles of hormone action and endocrine regulation. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Hormones involved in energy metabolism regulation. The stress response

CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION

Electrical activity of the specific and common myocardium. Origin and propagation of cardiac excitation. Phases and mechanical events of the cardiac cycle. Stroke volume and cardiac output. Control of heart function. Principles of electrocardiography. Organizational and functional aspects of the circulatory system. Blood pressure and velocity across the different sections of the circulatory system. Functions of arteries and arterioles. Capillary exchanges. Nervous and humoral regulation of peripheral circulation. Blood pressure regulation.

RESPIRATORY FUNCTION

Respiratory muscles and respiratory movements. Alveolar and pleural pressures. Pulmonary volumes and capacities. Composition of atmospheric and alveolar air. Diffusion of respiratory gases. Blood transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Chemical and nervous regulation of respiration: respiratory centers; peripheral and central chemoreceptors.

RENAL FUNCTION

General aspects of the renal function: ultrafiltration, secretion, reabsorption. Ultrafiltration process: pressure balance and net filtration pressure. Ultrafiltration rate. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution: optional reabsorption of water and its regulation.

LIVER AND SPLEEN

General principles about endocrine and exocrine spleen activity. Liver and biliary function related to the metabolism of potentially dangerous molecules (drugs and alcool). 

Readings/Bibliography

One of the following textbooks can be used:

- L. Zocchi, Principi di Fisiologia. Edises, 1st Edition, 2012

- F. Martini, J. Nath. Fondamenti di Anatomia e Fisiologia.EdiSES, 3rd Edition, 2010

Teaching methods

Slides shown during lectures are mostly taken from suggested readings. If not, the reference is indicated.

Assessment methods

The exam aims at verifying the acquisition of the theoretical knowledge of topics presented during the lectures.

The exam is perfomed as written test with 33 multiple-choice questions to be completed in 30 minutes. 1 point for each correct answer and no penalty for wrong answers. A score over 30 points will be converted in 30L

During the exam, it is not allowed support material as books, notes and informatic tools.

It is necessary the registration throught AlmaEsami until 3 working days before the day of the exam.

Teaching tools

Set of slides concerning each topic of the Course Program can be downloaded from the website https://virtuale.unibo.it/by students enrolled at the University of Bologna (University institutional username and password required) .

Office hours

See the website of Stefano Bastianini