32108 - Pedagogic Methodologies and Instruments

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being Reduced inequalities

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the student: - knows pedagogical theories related to immigrant or special needs; - knows pedagogical observation methods; - is able to use the tools of pedagogical mediation; - is able to use the tools of the new functional educational diagnosis; - is able to use the tools to support documentation and evaluation processes.

Course contents

Program / Content

The course takes place in the first semester and is aimed at students of the first year of the course (Master's degree). Lessons are held at the headquarters of the Department of Psychology, p.za A. Moro, 90 Cesena (FC). It is divided into two modules: the first, led by Prof. Patrizia Sandri; the second, led by Prof. Valeria Friso.
At the beginning of each module it is planned to carry out a survey on the beliefs, beliefs, knowledge already in the possession of the students relating to the scope of intervention of the Special Pedagogy and the main concepts of reference: integration / inclusion, diversity / normality, etc. This survey will be useful to teachers to allow them to better decline the program and introduce any insights. Each student will be provided with a written communication regarding any misconceptions that he/she will have to clarify during the course.

Program/Contents module 1 - prof. Patrizia Sandri

The course contents include:

1. Main theories and research on the origins, characteristics, evaluation, intervention strategies and development of pedagogical and educational issues in reference to children and young people with special educational needs, including those who are gifted and talented.

In particular:

• The pedagogical method of inclusion of students with disabilities in common life contexts; Functional diagnostic observation and evaluation, and family, school, and community interventions.

• the results of major evidence-based research on inclusion of special needs students in regular schools.

• Content, methods and evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention programs that can be implemented to support students with special educational needs.

2. Knowledge of schools or other contexts in which you work to realize practices that create and preserve the well-being, care, and foster the learning of each member.

In particular:

• the main standards of integration / inclusion in Italy with particular reference to school context

• Instruments for organizing an inclusive school

• Indicators to assess the quality of scholastic inclusion level.

3. Knowledge of context (especially school and family) influences on students' development as well as methods to improve family involvement in promoting school and psychological development of students. How to work effectively with families, educators and other members of the community to promote and deliver integrated services to children with special educational needs and their families.

In particular:

• the different effects that family systems may have on students' cognitive, motivational, social and scholastic functioning.

• the involvement of the family in training.

• Methods to promote collaboration and partnership between families and educators to improve student development and ensure their wellbeing.

• the implications of cultural diversity on collaboration between family, school and community.

Program/Contents module 2 - prof. Valeria Friso

The general objective of module 2 is to make it understood that in schools and services, through the use of pedagogical methodologies and tools, inclusive processes can be promoted.
The contents of module 2 concern:- the school and the community as the driving force behind the life project;- from antiquity to the present day: progressive conquest of social visibility;- from birth to old age: work, independent living and independent living.- the tools of pedagogical mediation
The contents will be addressed by following the reference bibliography of the course and through the presentation of the main studies and research on the proposed topics.
Skills to be achieved:
- be able to distinguish situations in which pedagogical methodologies are used in an inclusive way;- be able to identify purely pedagogical methodologies;- be able to recognise the main pedagogical tools in training environments.


References module 1 - prof. Patrizia Sandri

Reference texts are the same for attending students and students who don’t attend.

1) Pavone M., L’inclusione educativa. Indicazioni pedagogiche per la disabilità, Mondadori Università, Milano, 2014 (Parte terza pp.159-207)

2) Goussot A., La Pedagogia speciale come scienza delle mediazioni e delle Differenze, Aras Edizioni, Pesaro 2015 (only the authors: Itard e Seguin, pp. 81-116; Decroly, pp.117-137; Montessori, pp. 157-167; Asperger, pp. 178-185; Wallon, pp. 187-218; Zazzo, pp. 218-224; Vygotskij, pp. 229-265 and the pages from 305 to 366)

Any other presentations, articles and teaching materials will be made available on the course website. 

References module 2 - prof. Valeria Friso

The bibliography of reference is the same for students who attend and do not attend

Cottini L., L'autodeterminazione nelle persone con disabilità. Percorsi educativi per svilupparla, Erickson, Trento, 2016 (pp.1-38; pp. 71-142)


Lepri C. (a cura di), La persona al centro. Autodeterminazione, autonomia, adultità per le persone disabili, Milano: Franco Angeli, 2016 (pp.132)

Any other presentations, articles and teaching materials will be made available on the course website.

Teaching methods

Didactic methods module 1 - prof. Patrizia Sandri

In addition to the traditional frontal lesson explanating profiles of children with disabilities, we will offer small group work, individual exercises on scientific papers, seminars with professionals and experts, role-playing. It will also propose real-life analysis to understand how to implement inclusion processes by video or film projection. In particular, the video of A. Canevaro, Zaghi L. (2010), L’integrazione prima delle leggi (http://www.mode.unibo.it/) will be projected.


Didactic methods module 2 - prof. Valeria Friso

Alongside traditional teaching methods, there will be an alternation of active methods that will allow learning in the presence of methods of pedagogical intervention. The activities will be proposed through a structured sequence of analogical and metaphorical actions ensuring a suitable environment for experiential learning.

Assessment methods

The exam is aimed at verifying the achievement of the following educational objectives:

- know the main pedagogical theories related to subjects with special educational needs;

-Know the methodologies of pedagogical observation;

-Know the tools of pedagogical mediation;

-Know the tools of functional educational diagnosis;

-Know the tools for supporting documentation and evaluation processes.

The final exam will be individual and will consist of a written test divided into two parts: one for module 1 and one for module 2, which will require you to:

  • answer some open questions on the main theoretical concepts addressed,
  • synthetically analyze a documentation of the situation experienced by a person with a deficit, on the basis of a trace that will be provided during the examination, to highlight the ability to identify and / or propose the application of the pedagogical tools treated during the course, with reference to the real situation described.

As regards the evaluation, we will consider:

1. conceptual clarity and exposure;

2. Critical review capacity of what has been studied;

3. the ability to make reasoned connections between theory and operational interventions.

The test will be about two hours. The vote will be in thirty.

Teaching tools

PC; beamer.

Office hours

See the website of Patrizia Sandri

See the website of Valeria Friso