00269 - Electronics

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2018/2019

Learning outcomes

The student will be able to analyse linear and non-linear circuits for analogue and digital applications. He will be able to design the  basic circuit blocks for the amplification and processing of analogue and digital signal.

Course contents

Module 1: Analog Electronics

1. Linear networks

Recalls on the methods for the analysis of linear circuits; Kirchhoff's laws; voltage and current dividers, Thevenin and Norton equivalent bipoles.

Power dissipation in electronic circuits.

Definition of voltage, current and power gains.

2. Diodes and Transistors circuits

Basic characteristics of semiconductors: energy bands, doping; conduction in semiconductors (drift-diffusion equations).

Junction diode: basic structure and principle of operation; I-V characteristics; constant-voltage-drop approximation.

Analysis of circuits including diodes; half-wave and full-wave rectifiers.

Bipolar junction transistor (BJT): principle of operation; elementary theory of base transport; regions of operation; simplified analytical model for the static I-V characteristics; “constant Vbe” approximation; Early effect. DC analysis of simple circuits with BJTs.


Introduction to the concepts of bias, linearization and small signal analysis.

Analysis of the four-resistors bias circuit; desensitization with respect to the dispersion of electrical parameters and to the temperature.

Small signal equivalent low-frequency circuits for the diode and for the BJT.

Basic elementary small-signal amplifiers: common emitter, common base, common collector.

Cascaded amplifiers: AC and DC couplings. Analysis of transistor amplifiers by decomposition into elementary stages. BJT differential amplifier.

Diode-connected BJT; basic current mirror.

3. Operational Amplifier (OPAMP)

Introduction to the operational amplifier; main characteristics and ideal model; concept of “virtual short-circuit”.

Inverting amplifier with OPAMP: quiescent point; analysis of the signal voltage gain with ideal OPAMP and assuming a finite differential voltage gain; input differential resistance (for ideal OPAMP).

Analysis of simple amplifiers and filters: non-inverting amplifier; voltage buffer; differential amplifier; instrumentation amplifier; integrator; differentiator; first-order low-pass and high-pass filters.
Main non-ideal effects: finite gain and input-output resistances; voltage offset; bias currents; current and voltage limitations; slew-rate.

  • Module 2: Circuits for Digital Electronics
  • Performance, features and factors of merits of digital circuits and logic families.
  • Operating principles, electrical characteristics, models for large and small signals for junction diodes and MOS transistors.
  • MOS static logics: FCMOS, pseudo-n-MOS, pass transistor logics.
  • MOS dynamic logics. CMOS Domino, np-logics.
  • Sequential logic circuits.
  • Power consumption in digital circuits.
  • Semiconductor memories


Richard C. Jaeger, T. N. Blalock: Microelettronics, McGraw-Hill

David Esseni,
Fondamenti di Circuiti Digitali Integrati
SGEditoriali Padova
ISBN 88-89884-01-0

J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, B. Nikolic
Digital Integrated Circuits, A design Perspective
Prentice Hall.

Teaching methods

Theoretical lessons and exercises concerning the analysis and the design of simple analog circuits.

Assessment methods

The exam is divided into two parts related to the two teaching modules

Module 1:

Written exam divided into two sections:

1) questions concerning the theory and the main concepts provided by the course.

2) analysis of analogue circuits based on BJTs and OPAMP.

Module 2

exam divided into two sections

written exam concerning the analysis and design of simpledigital circuits

oral exam concerning the theory and the main concepts provided by the course

Office hours

See the website of Claudio Fiegna

See the website of Enrico Sangiorgi

See the website of Sergio Callegari