# 00269 - Electronics

## Learning outcomes

The student will be able to analyse linear and non-linear circuits for analogue and digital applications. He will be able to design the  basic circuit blocks for the amplification and processing of analogue and digital signal.

## Course contents

Module 1: Analog Electronics

1. Linear networks

Recalls on the methods for the analysis of linear circuits; Kirchhoff's laws; voltage and current dividers, Thevenin and Norton equivalent bipoles.

Power dissipation in electronic circuits.

Definition of voltage, current and power gains.

2. Diodes and Transistors circuits

Basic characteristics of semiconductors: energy bands, doping; conduction in semiconductors (drift-diffusion equations).

Junction diode: basic structure and principle of operation; I-V characteristics; constant-voltage-drop approximation.

Analysis of circuits including diodes; half-wave and full-wave rectifiers.

Bipolar junction transistor (BJT): principle of operation; elementary theory of base transport; regions of operation; simplified analytical model for the static I-V characteristics; “constant Vbe” approximation; Early effect. DC analysis of simple circuits with BJTs.

The PNP BJT.

Introduction to the concepts of bias, linearization and small signal analysis.

Analysis of the four-resistors bias circuit; desensitization with respect to the dispersion of electrical parameters and to the temperature.

Small signal equivalent low-frequency circuits for the diode and for the BJT.

Basic elementary small-signal amplifiers: common emitter, common base, common collector.

Cascaded amplifiers: AC and DC couplings. Analysis of transistor amplifiers by decomposition into elementary stages. BJT differential amplifier.

Diode-connected BJT; basic current mirror.

3. Operational Amplifier (OPAMP)

Introduction to the operational amplifier; main characteristics and ideal model; concept of “virtual short-circuit”.

Inverting amplifier with OPAMP: quiescent point; analysis of the signal voltage gain with ideal OPAMP and assuming a finite differential voltage gain; input differential resistance (for ideal OPAMP).

Analysis of simple amplifiers and filters: non-inverting amplifier; voltage buffer; differential amplifier; instrumentation amplifier; integrator; differentiator; first-order low-pass and high-pass filters.
Main non-ideal effects: finite gain and input-output resistances; voltage offset; bias currents; current and voltage limitations; slew-rate.

• Module 2: Circuits for Digital Electronics
• Performance, features and factors of merits of digital circuits and logic families.
• Operating principles, electrical characteristics, models for large and small signals for junction diodes and MOS transistors.
• MOS static logics: FCMOS, pseudo-n-MOS, pass transistor logics.
• MOS dynamic logics. CMOS Domino, np-logics.
• Sequential logic circuits.
• Power consumption in digital circuits.
• Semiconductor memories

Richard C. Jaeger, T. N. Blalock: Microelettronics, McGraw-Hill

David Esseni,
Fondamenti di Circuiti Digitali Integrati
ISBN 88-89884-01-0

J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, B. Nikolic
Digital Integrated Circuits, A design Perspective
Prentice Hall.

## Teaching methods

Theoretical lessons and exercises concerning the analysis and the design of simple analog circuits.

## Assessment methods

The exam is divided into two parts related to the two teaching modules

Module 1:

Written exam divided into two sections:

1) questions concerning the theory and the main concepts provided by the course.

2) analysis of analogue circuits based on BJTs and OPAMP.

Module 2

exam divided into two sections

written exam concerning the analysis and design of simpledigital circuits

oral exam concerning the theory and the main concepts provided by the course

## Office hours

See the website of Claudio Fiegna

See the website of Enrico Sangiorgi

See the website of Sergio Callegari