90244 - Forms of Poetic Text (1) (LM)

Academic Year 2023/2024

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Italian Studies, European Literary Cultures, Linguistics (cod. 9220)

Learning outcomes

Throughout this class, students are introduced the knowledge of the fundamentals of an analytical approach to the poetic text - meter, rhythm, intonation, and the history of poetic forms - in a comparative perspective, and they become able to apply them as they read authors and poems belonging to various languages and traditions.

Course contents

Main topic:

Forms of enunciation in XXth-Century Italian Poetry

The course (30 hours) aims to:

1) elaborate a notion of "lyric enunciation" based on Benveniste's dinstinction between énoncé ed énonciation;

2) analyze the specific function assumed by the various devices (phonological, lexical, rhythmic-syntactic, rhetorical, metric) of a poetic text with reference to its particular circumstance of enunciation, spatially and historically situated within a "horizon of expectations" (Jauss), knowledge and literary experiences lived as a place of intersections, overlaps and collisions between codes and discourses embodying conflicting ideological orientations;

3) Examine from a diachronic perspective the various configurations assumed by the space of enunciation in XXth-Century Italian Poetry, comparing imitations, transformations and parodic alterations of certain thematic-structural elements of D’Annunzio’s Alcyone and Pascoli’s Myricae carried out by Guido Gozzano, Dino Campana, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Eugenio Montale, Andrea Zanzotto, Amelia Rosselli, Antonio Porta and the Novissimi.


It is strongly recommended to attend the first introductory lesson about the bibliography of the course and the assessment methods (explained in detail at the bottom of the page). Students are also invited to access the Teaching resources on Virtuale platform before the start of the course.


Further information about course, program and assessment methods will be provided in class and during Office hours (not by email).


Literary texts

Below are listed only the books from which the texts will be chosen. The (approximately 50) texts of the poems to be prepared for the exam (pdf) will be available on the platform Teaching resources on Virtuale since the beginning of the lectures.

Please note: students are expected to prepare the poems by poets of the first 20th century analyzed in class; as regards to the second 20th century, they will choose only one of the following poets: Antonio Porta, Andrea Zanzotto, Amelia Rosselli.

  • Giovanni Pascoli, Myricae, ed. by G. Lavezzi, Milano, BUR, 2015.
  • Gabriele d’Annunzio, Alcyone, ed. by F. Roncoroni, Milano, Oscar Mondadori, 1995 (or other annotated edition).
  • Guido Gozzano, La signorina Felicita ovvero La Felicità, in ID., Poesie e prose, ed. by L. Lenzini, Milano, Feltrinelli, 2008.
  • Dino Campana, Canti Orfici, ed. by F. Ceragioli, Milano, Rizzoli, 2014; alternatively: Canti Orfici e altre poesie, ed. by R. Martinoni, Torino, Einaudi, 2014.
  • Giuseppe Ungaretti, Il Porto Sepolto, ed. by C. Ossola, Venezia, Marsilio, 1990; alternatively: G. Ungaretti, Il Porto Sepolto, in N. Lorenzini-S. Colangelo, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Le Monnier, 2012.
  • Eugenio Montale, Ossi di seppia, ed. by P. Cataldi and F. d’Amely, Milano, Mondadori, 2016; ID., Le occasioni, ed. by T. De Rogatis, Milano, Mondadori, 2011; ID., La bufera e altro, ed. by I. Campeggiani and N. Scaffai, Milano, Mondadori, 2019.
  • Andrea Zanzotto, Le poesie e prose scelte, ed. by S. Dal Bianco and G.M. Villalta, Milano, Mondadori, 1999. ID., Erratici, ed. by F. Carbognin, Milano, Mondadori, 2021.
  • Amelia Rosselli, L'opera poetica, ed. by S. Giovannuzzi, with the collaboration of F. Carbognin, C. Carpita, S. De March, G. Palli Baroni, E. Tandello, Milano, Mondadori, “I Meridiani”, 2012.
  • Antonio Porta, Poesie 1956-1988, Milano, Mondadori, 1989, pp. 179-195.


Critical essays

Some of the following essays are available on the Teaching resources on Virtuale platform.

  • Pier Vincenzo Mengaldo (ed. by), Poeti italiani del Novecento, Milano, Oscar Grandi Classici Mondadori, 2003 (Introduzione and the short introductions to the following poets: Dino Campana, Corrado Govoni, Aldo Palazzeschi, Guido Gozzano, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Eugenio Montale, Andrea Zanzotto, Amelia Rosselli).
  • Guido Guglielmi, Interpretazione di Ungaretti, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1989 (chapter 1 only).
  • Enrico Testa, Montale, Torino, Einaudi Tascabili, 2000, pp. 1-77.
  • Luigi Blasucci, Percorso di un tema montaliano: il tempo, in ID., Gli oggetti di Montale, Il Mulino, Bologna 2002, pp. 87-111.
  • Andrea Zanzotto, i saggi L’inno nel fango, Testimonianza, I «Novissimi», in ID., Scritti sulla letteratura, ed. by G.M. Villalta, Milano, Mondadori, 2001, vol. I, pp. 15-20 e pp. 87-98; vol. II, pp. 24-29.
  • Francesco Carbognin, Linguaggio (1956 – 1969), in N. Lorenzini – S. Colangelo [a cura di], Poesia e Storia, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2013, pp. 195-239.
  • Alfredo Giuliani (ed. by), I Novissimi. Poesie per gli anni ’60, Torino, Einaudi, 2003.
  • Niva Lorenzini, Postfazione, in A. Porta, Poesie 1956-1988, Milano, Mondadori, 1989, pp. 179-195.
  • Fernando Bandini, Zanzotto dalla “Heimat” al mondo, in A. Zanzotto, Le Poesie e Prose scelte, ed. by Stefano Dal Bianco and Gian Mario Villalta, with two essays by Stefano Agosti and Fernando Bandini, Milano, Mondadori,1999, pp. LII-XCIV.
  • Francesco Carbognin, Variazioni Belliche, in A. Rosselli, L'opera poetica, ed. by S. Giovannuzzi, with the collaboration of F. Carbognin, C. Carpita, S. De March, G. Palli Baroni, E. Tandello, Milano, Mondadori, “I Meridiani”, 2012, pp. 1292-1310.


Please note

Additional resources (pages from critical essays by Benveniste, Jauss, Benjamin, Barthes, Contini, Eco, Mengaldo, Testa, discussed in class) will be available on the Teaching resources on Virtuale platform at the beginning of the course. These materials, whose knowledge is mandatory, even for non-attending students, are part of the exam program.


Not-attending students

Teaching materials and examination procedures are the same for both attending and non-attending students.


International students

International students will prepare a shorter program, to be agreed with the teacher during the Office hours (not by email).

Teaching methods

Classes with a strong interaction between students and teacher. Lessons will be held in in-person mode.



Wednesday, 13:00-15:00
Aula II, Via Zamboni 38

Thursday, 13.00-15.00
aula C, Via Centotrecento 18

Friday, 13.00-15.00
Aula Pascoli, Via Zamboni 32


Beginning of lectures

Wednesday, 8 novembre 2022
(II period)

Assessment methods

The final oral exam is an interview aimed at verifying in each student some argumentative and technical skills related to the theoretical matters and the poetic texts analyzed throughout the class. Students will be required to read and comment some poems from the course programme, of which they are expected to recognize and to describe the main metrical and rhetorical-syntactic features.

A positive or excellent score (27 to 30/30, even with distinction) corresponds to a full mastering of technical, theoretical, historical tools for the analysis of poetic text, to a strong ability to make connections among any single part of the course contents and to correctly approach textual features with an appropriate language; an average score (23 to 26/30) goes to students who show some lacks in one or more topics or analytical exercises; a low score (18 to 22/30) to students who have severe lacks in one or more topics or exercises, that show improprieties in using notions and approaching textual examples. A negative score is assigned to students who are absolutely not able to manage the general notions and the technical language appropriate to literary analysis, and who cannot recognize the different characteristics (metrical, rhetorical, syntactic, semantic) of a poetic text.

Teaching tools

PC, video projector, overhead projector, slides and digital scans of images and excerpts from poetic and critical texts.

Office hours

See the website of Francesco Carbognin


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This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.