10230 - Special Veterinary Pathology I

Academic Year 2023/2024

  • Moduli: Giuliano Bettini (Modulo 1) Silvia Sabattini (Modulo 2) Maria Morini (Modulo 3)
  • Teaching Mode: Blended Learning (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2) Traditional lectures (Modulo 3)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Veterinary Medicine (cod. 8617)

Learning outcomes

Aethiology, pathogenesis, gross and microscopic features of the more relevant diseases and disorders of the following systems or organ: nervous system, eye, ear, liver, pancreas, grastrointestinal tract, muscle, bone, joints, male and female genital system, endocrine glands. The student should acquire skills sufficient to identify a lesion, describe it using the appropriate terminology, and plan a differential diagnosis.

Course contents

The course is divided into three modules. Module 1 (Giuliano Bettini) mainly deals with the theoretical part. The practical part is carried out in modules 2 and 3 (Maria Morini and Silvia Sabattini). The course is part of the C.I. Veterinary Pathological Anatomy; the final mark is signed by Prof. Giuseppe Sarli, holder of the Pathological Anatomy II module.

The course participates at the University's teaching innovation project for the 2023-24 academic year. The project foresees that 15 hours of the 45 hours foreseen for module 1 will be provided in asynchronous mode, i.e. recorded lectures accessible on the platform VIRTUALE will be provided to the students and can be freely used.

The precise subdivision between topics covered in the classroom and available online will be presented in the classroom and described in the syllabus. It is strongly recommended to enjoy the remote part according to the suggested chronology.


THE LIVER. Anatomy and physiology remnants. Physiopathology of liver failure. Post mortem changes. Growth anomalies. Portosystemic shunts. Liver ectopy. Liver rupture. Atrophy. Regressive changes: steroid hepatopathy, lipidosis, amiloidosis. Pigmentary changes: lipofuscinosis, haemosiderosis, jaundice. Toxicosis of the liver. Necrosis of the liver: causes, pathobiology, examples. Circulatory disorders: hyperaemia, thrombosis, portal hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, telangiectasis. Nodular hyperplasia, Kisselev nodules. Hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic cirrhosis. Acute, chronic and granulomatous hepatitises. Parasitic disorders of the liver: coccidiosis, distomatosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, microascaridiosis. Primary and secondary liver tumours.

THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Oral cavity and pharynx: congenital abnormalities. Stomatitis. vesicular stomatitis: footh and mouth disease, malignant catarrhal fever. Uremic stomatitis. Eosinophilic feline ulcera. Oral tumors. Teeth: congenital abnormalities, periodontitis. Tonsillitis. Sialoadenitis.Salivary gland tumors. Oesophagus: malformations, fistulas, hernias, diverticulas, stenosis, megaesophagus, oesophagitis, parasites (sarcosporidiosis, spirocercosis), tumors. Prestomach: foreign bodies, acute and deep ruminitis, parasites, tumors. Stomach/abomasum. Gastric torsion and abomasum displacement. Gastric ulceration. Swine gastroesophageal ulcer. Bovine abomasal ulcer. Gastritis/abomasitis. Parasites. Tumors. Intestine . Congenital abnormalities. Bowel displacement. Cystic pneumatosis. Foreign bodies. Enteritis. Diarrhea physiopathology. Enteritides of the bovine ( coronavirosis, rotavirosis, BVD-MD, colibacillosis, salmonellosis, paratubercolosis), swine (TGE, colibacillosis, salmonellosis, Lawsonia intracellularis), horse (X colitis, salmonellosis), dog (parvovirosis), cat (parvovirosis, coronavirosis), rabbit (Tyzzer disease, mucoid enteropathy, pseudotubercolosi) and sheep (colibacillosis, clostridiosis, paratubercolosis, yersiniosis). Intestinal parasites. Coccidiosis. Teniasis. Strongilosis. Ascaridiosis. Intestinal tumors.

THE PERITONEUM. Abnormal contents. Ascites. Peritonitis. FIP. Mesothelioma.

THE PANCREAS. Regressive lesions. Atrophy, necrosis. Pancreatitis. Tumours.

ENDOCRINE GLANDS. The pituitary: cysts, inflammation, functional and non functional tumours. Adrenals: regressive changes, inflammation, hypertrophy, tumours, the Cushing sundrome. The thyroid: goitre, tiroiditis, tumours. The parathyroid: hyperparathyroidism. Paraganglia: chemodectoma. Endocrine pancreas: diabetes mellitus, islet cell tumours.

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Bones: skeletal deformities, metabolic osteopathies, osteomalacia, rickets, osteoporosis, fibrous osteodistrophy. Hypertophic osteopathy. Osteitis. Osteosarcoma. Muscles: congenital myopathies, myodistrophies, nutritional myopathies, excertional myopathies, myosistis, parasites of muscles. Joints : arthrosis, arthritis, tumours.

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. Male genital system: cryptorchidism, orchitis, tumours of the testis, prostatic cysts, prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, prostatic neoplasms. Tranmissible venereal tumour. Penis carcinoma. Female genital system: ovarian cysts, ovarian neoplasms, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, endometritis, pyometra, metritis, uterine tumours.

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Elementary lesions. Congenital and inherited diseases. Hydrocephalus. Circulatory disorders. Neurodegenerations. Polioencephalomalacia. Leucoencephalomalacia. Hepatic encephalopathy. Neurotoxicosis. Spongiform encephalopathies. Meningitis. Encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Parasites of the nervous system. Diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Tumours of the central and peripheral nervous system.

THE EYE AND THE EAR. Eye. Blefaritis. Congiuntivitis. Keratitis. Uveitis. Cataratta. Glaucoma. Retinic degeneration. Eye neoplasms. Ear. Otoematoma. Otitis.



The practical part of the teaching has the main objective of making the student apply the knowledge acquired in the theoretical part. In particular, acquire familiarity with the anatomopathological methods (mainly macroscopic), acquire the ability to identify a lesion and describe it with appropriate terminology, acquire the ability to rework what has been learned in the theoretical part to set up a differential diagnosis (professional skills)




PS Marcato: Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria. Seconda Edizione. Edagricole, Bologna, 2015

ZACHARY-McGAVIN Pathologic basis of veterinary disease 5° ed., Elsevier, 2011

MAXIE Jubb, Kennedy, Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals 3 voll. 6° ed., W.B. Saunders, 2015

Teaching methods

Module 1 (theoretical part): lectures and seminars

Modules 2 and 3) practical part: exercises of macroscopic pathological anatomy on viscera of slaughtered animals specially taken from the slaughterhouse and on cases selected from the diagnostic routine of the pathological anatomy service; participation in the execution of necropsies on cases assigned to the service for diagnostic feedback; exercises in histopathology; visit to the Museum of Veterinary Pathology.

Particular attention will be paid to compliance with biosecurity procedures. In consideration of the types of activities and teaching methods adopted, the attendance of this training activity requires all students of Modules 1 and 2 to carry out e-learning [https://www.unibo.it/it/servizi-e -opportunities / health-and-assistance / health-and-safety / safety-and-health-in-places-of-study-and-training] and participation in Module 3 of specific training on safety and health in study places . Information on dates and methods of attendance of Module 3 can be consulted in the specific section of the degree program website. "

Assessment methods

The final examination is designed to assess the achievement of the main learning outcomes of the course: (1) To know the aetiopathogenesis and macroscopic and microscopic morphological features of the main diseases affecting the organs and systems addressed in the course; (2) to know how to recognize an organ lesion and describe it using the appropriate terminology; (3) to be able to formulate and discuss a list of possible differential diagnoses starting from a macroscopic lesion and suggest how to establish a final diagnosis.

The examination consists of a written test, a practical test and an oral test. The three tests are taken at the same time, usually on the same day. Given the close integration of all three tests they cannot be taken separately.

a) Written test . The aim of the written test is to ascertain that the student has an adequate body of knowledge relating to the course contents. Students who fail the written test are not eligible to sit the subsequent parts of the examination. The written test includes 20 questions (10 multiple choice questions and 10 short open ended questions).

- Each multiple choice question has four alternatives and only one correct answer. The possible scores are 0 (incorrect) or 1 (correct). Failure to answer is deemed incorrect

- In open-ended questions the answer must fit in the space allotted. The score ranges from 0 to 1 depending on the accuracy of the answer and adherence to the question. Failure to answer is scored zero.

- The time allotted for the written test is 90 minutes. During the test students are not allowed to use support material like textbooks, notes or computers.

- A total score of at least 12 points is required to pass the test and sit the subsequent parts of the examination.

b) Practical test . The aim of the practical test is to ascertain that the student is able to recognize an organ lesion and knows how to describe it using the appropriate terminology. The student is shown a pathological organ or photograph reproducing an organ lesion. The student must recognize the organ and species to which it belongs, identify the lesion and describe it using the standard international descriptive method presented during the course. The candidate is deemed suitable if the test is passed. Students who fail the practical test are required to resit the entire examination.

c) Oral test

The aim of the oral test is to ascertain the student's ability to apply his/her body of knowledge with the necessary logico-deductive skills. The oral test is usually based on the lesion observed in the practical test. The student is asked to formulate a list of differential diagnoses fitting the lesion morphology and to discuss the elements for and against the various hypotheses advanced, suggesting how the final diagnosis could be reached. Test questions are designed to elicit in-depth information on the diseases called into play. Special attention is paid to the student's ability to undertake transverse reasoning and to link the course information with the information acquired from courses attended in previous years. The oral test score ranges from 0 (zero) to 10 (ten). A total score of at least 6 points is required to pass the test. Students who fail to obtain 6 points are required to resit the entire examination.

The final score expressed in marks out of thirty is sum of the oral test score and the written test score and shall be recorded immediately. Students awarded full marks in all parts of the examination shall be awarded the top mark of 30 cum laude.

Procedures concerning the booking and dates of the exam sessions

Students can only book their oral test following the instructions available on the Alma Esami online system: (https://almaesami.unibo.it/almaesami/welcome.htm ).

- Examination dates appear in special windows for course students and are scheduled throughout the year for out-of-course students.

- Course students are not entitled to sit examinations outside the specified dates.

- Examinations cannot be taken without fulfilling the propedeutic requirements specified by the degree course committee.

- If all candidates cannot be examined on the scheduled day, depending on the time available the examiner is entitled to shift the examination date of unexamined candidates drawing up an examination schedule on the first examination day.

- Students failing to pass the oral test are entitled to resit the entire examination.

Teaching tools

Powerpoint slides

images and other tools on http://portaledidatticovet.unibo.it/

Links to further information


Office hours

See the website of Giuliano Bettini

See the website of Silvia Sabattini

See the website of Maria Morini


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