31150 - English Language and Linguistics 2 (A-L)

Academic Year 2023/2024

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: First cycle degree programme (L) in Foreign Languages and Literature (cod. 0979)

Learning outcomes

During this course, students will be given specialised knowledge in one of the several linguistic approaches to the English language, with particular reference to interpersonal communication and grammatical metaphor. During the year, students will learn to perform linguistic analyses of a variety of original texts in English. Students will learn skills in the English language equivalent to level B2+ in all abilities according the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).

Course contents

Lezioni frontali

(Lectures). These are taught by the convenor of this course. There are four hours a week for the first semester. These classes deal with the lexical metaphor, the analysis of transitivity, modality, the system of evaluation and end with the grammatical metaphor. The explanation of linguistic theories goes hand in hand with practical exercises on English texts. These include articles from daily and weekly papers, internet sites, and literature. This course aims at showing students how the English language works and how to communicate effectively in English.

Esercitazioni (practical language classes). These are taught by mothertongue English language assistants (4 hours per week, during the first and second semester). These focus on the four abilities (reading, writing, listening and speaking) and aim at level B2+ of the CEFR.


Lezioni frontali

To prepare for the final exam of this part of the course, students should study all the PPT and exercises that will be uploaded on the Virtuale platform.

These PPT use material from various linguistics books that can be useful to study for the final exam - either a take-home exam or a quiz.

This list is provisional and will be updated during the course

THOMPSON, G. (2014). Introducing Functional Grammar. Third Edition. London: Routledge (Capitoli su Interpersonal Metafunction (pp. 45-88) e Metaphor (pp. 233-252) e pp. 122-129. Questo testo è anche accessibile tramite https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.ezproxy.unibo.it/lib/unibo/detail.action?docID=1319003 (main text - Mandatory)

LAKOFF G. and M. JOHNSON (1980). Metaphors We Live By. pp. 124-128. Questo articolo è accessibile all'indirizzo https://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/AY2013/cs7601_spring/papers/Lakoff_Johnson.pdf

CHARTERIS-BLACK J. (2011). Politicians and Rhetoric. The persuasive Power of Metaphor (only the parte that is quoted in the PPT).

Internet sites:

4 hours - Joe Biden for President -- https://youtu.be/7ef8xufT-KI

Daily Mail, March 11, 2020

The Guardian, March 14. 2020


The course book for all groups is: Gold Advanced C1 Student Pack New Edition, ed. Pearson. ISBN 9788883395475.

Teaching methods


Teaching for the first semester will be in class (unless specified otherwise).

Lezioni frontali

Lectures and group work. In the attempt to provide an interactive experience for the students, there will be guided discussions with questions and answers as well as group works. For more information see the PPT "Welcome and Presentation".


Exercises, group work and individual exercises on all four linguistic abilities (i.e. speaking, listening, reading and writing).

Assessment methods

The exam consists of the following


For this part of the course there will be a choice between the following:

a. A take-home exam. This option is only possible during the course. It consists of three assignments to be completed by December 20th 2023.


b. a quiz carried out during the exam session in January 2024 or any other exam session during the academic year. This will consist of 31 questions – including multiple choice, open ended and true/ false based on one or two different texts. The exam will last 55 minutes.

More detailed information including examples, evaluation method and fac-simile of the exam are available in the PPT "Welcome and Presentation".


This will consist of two parts

1. A language written, based on the contents of the language classes (Esercitazioni) held by native English language experts. This tests the students' capacity to analyze, understand and use the English language at level B2 (higher threshold) of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. This exam component is divided into specific sections on (a) Use of English (45 minutes), (b) Reading (45 minutes) and (c) Writing (60 minutes). The final mark is the mean of the scores obtained in the three sections; however, passing the Use of English exam paper is an essential condition to pass the language exam. The text types used for this component of the exam are general interest and popular science texts (e.g. newspaper articles, reviews, interviews).  

2. A Speaking Ability Test (SAT), which tests the students’ listening and speaking skills, and their capacity to communicate fluently and effectively in English, with a good command of grammar and a wide vocabulary, on a variety of general topics, including complex ones. This component of the exam lasts 10-15 minutes. Only after passing the written language exam can students take the SAT. Students who have chosen English as their third Language are not obliged to take the SAT, but may do so if they wish In Virtuale you will find a facsimile for the lezioni frontali written and the esercitazioni written.

Marking criteria and levels

Each part of the exam is evaluated separately. The final mark is calculated as follows: the score obtained in the language written is multiplied by 2, and added to the score obtained in the SAT. This figure is divided by 3, and added to the score obtained in the Linguistics written. The total is, finally, divided by 2. If a student passes one of these exam components (“esami parziali”) with a score of at least 18/30, s/he may not reject the mark and take that exam component again. Only the final mark (calculated as explained above) can be rejected. This, however, implies taking all of the exam components again. As of academic year 2014-2015, marks obtained in written exams remain valid for 4 exam sessions (the one in which the exam was passed + other 3). Written exams take place once for each exam session; SATs and verbalizzazioni are held twice for each exam session, once before and once after the writtens. It is not obligatory to pass the three components of the exam in the same exam session, but it is not possible to register the final mark for this course until all three exam components have been passed Students who show a solid (Upper Intermediate - Proficient User) command of the English language and an equally good awareness of its metalinguistic aspects receive an excellent mark.

PLEASE NOTE: the mark for the single components of this exam is valid for one year that correspond to 4 sessions. Students can refuse the final mark only

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR ERASMUS STUDENTS and STUDENTS FROM OTHER DEPARTMENTS/ DEGREE COURSES Exceptions may apply to Erasmus students spending only one semester in Bologna. These students are asked to contact Prof. Aragrande.

Teaching tools

Audio-visual devices, particularly Powerpoint presentations for lectures and listening comprehension for Esercitazioni

Links to further information


Office hours

See the website of Gaia Aragrande


Quality education

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.