30094 - Spanish Language (LM)

Academic Year 2023/2024

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Modern, Post-Colonial and Comparative Literatures (cod. 0981)

Learning outcomes

By the end of the course, students will have acquired a thorough knowledge of the linguistic and discursive aspects of Spanish, from both a synchronic and a diachronic perspective. They will also understand how different applications of textual analysis and translation operate in Spanish. This will be achieved through practical exercises to develop students’ communicative skills, active and passive, in order to progress to a C2 level in the Common European Framework of Reference. Students will effectively interpret the socio-linguistic and cultural codes of all subjects in communication.

Course contents


At the end of the course, students will attain a proficiency level in Spanish (phonology, morphology, vocabulary, and syntax) corresponding to the C1 or C2 levels of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Additionally, they will also:

  • Understand and produce sentences in Spanish regarding the needs of public and academic life.
  • Read, analyse, summarise, understand and explain the explicit and implicit information of academic texts (in particular, scientific articles) applying linguistic and pragmatic theories to the analysis of Spanish, as well as the uses, customs and social codes of the Spanish speaking community.
  • Understand the role of communication in the creation, dissemination and maintenance of Spanish American culture, and reflect on the meaning of the discourse in intercultural contexts.
  • Recognise cultural variables and analyse them in Spanish. Understand the principles that govern the use of Spanish in a communicative interaction, especially in those that occur among people from different cultures.
  • Examine the verbal and non-verbal elements of a communicative interaction in Spanish and approach the design of measuring instruments for the individual, contextual and cultural variables that affect the communicative interaction in Spanish.
  • Analyse and consider the pragmatic components of Spanish, especially, in the case of intercultural contact, in order to recognise, detect, and analyse the seriousness of possible cultural-linguistic errors and pragmatic misunderstandings.
  • Develop the necessary skills for the activity of intercultural mediator. Furthermore, know how to apply the course contents to solve integration problems or conflictive situations that require the application of principles of intercultural pragmatics.
  • Identify the beliefs about other cultures derived from stereotypes, filters and clichés.
  • Interpret the cultural products of Spanish-speaking countries, especially plastic arts and literary works, updating their knowledge of adequate skills and attitudes.
  • Interpret the personal, public and academic situations, acquiring the sociocultural knowledge, skills and attitudes that are adequate in each scenario.
  • Build a positive image of themselves as users and learners of languages, and. particularly, of Spanish.
  • Use the discursive competence in writing for an academic audience, as well as to identify the genre of academic article in order to disseminate one's linguistic and pragmatic observations.
  • Recognise and apply the typical discursive resources of academic texts in Spanish to prepare scientific articles aimed at the dissemination of results related to the usage, customs and social codes of the Spanish-speaking community.
  • Identify the typical composition phases of drafting an academic text. Analyse one’s own writing style in formal texts, thus recognising the most representative aspects of the academic genre from the normative, grammatical, discursive and socio-cultural perspective.
  • Write and compose a text that follows the characteristics of a scientific article and the academic format in Spanish.
  • Be able to provide personal and academic information related to future plans and projects.
  • Find the necessary information to progress and edit future written documents (i.e. making use of libraries, Internet, databases, etc.).
  • Get to know the channels of international transmission of scientific knowledge. Appreciate the processes of transformation of knowledge into universal heritage to overcome barriers through its dissemination, facilitating transformation, recovery, and use.

This course will be divided into 5 modules:


The general objective of the first part (20 hours) is to introduce students to linguistics and sociolinguistics, as applied to the analysis of Spanish. A general view of sociolinguistics will be introduced first:


  • Historia de la lengua española, Real Academia Española, normalización y reformas lingüísticas principales


  • Diatópicas

    - Lengua

    - Dialecto

    - Habla

  • Diafásicas

    - Variación social y sociolectos

  • Diastráticas

    - Registro (formal / informal / neutro)

  • *(uso de Tú/Usted/Vos, dequeísmo, leísmo, loísmo, seseo, ceceo -entre otros-)

** MÓNICA CRUZ (28 MAR 2017) "Estos 11 nombres mexicanos surgieron por malentendidos entre los españoles y los pueblos mesoamericanos". El País https://verne.elpais.com/verne/2017/03/28/mexico/1490652858_045140.html

*** Pablo Esparza (2 septiembre 2016) "6 expresiones latinoamericanas que a los españoles nos cuesta entender (y cómo llegué a adoptarlas)". BBC MUNDO https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-37025329


La comunicación no verbal y sus sistemas:

  • Paralenguaje

    - Cualidades físicas del sonido (el tono, el timbre, la cantidad y la intensidad, los modificadores fónicos o tipo de voz, etc.)

    - Reacciones fisiológicas y emocionales (la risa, el suspiro, el grito, la tos, el carraspeo, el bostezo, el llanto, el sollozo, el escupir, el eructo, el estornudo, el castañeteo de dientes, etc.)

    - Elementos cuasi-léxicos (vocalizaciones, consonantizaciones -interjecciones-, onomatopeyas, etc.)

  • Quinésica

    - Gestos

    - Movimientos faciales o corporales

    - Maneras y posturas

  • Proxémica (uso y distribución del espacio: privado, público y comunicativo)
  • Cronémica (la concepción del tiempo y su implicación en la comunicación plurilingüe)


The general goal of the second part (10 hours) is to introduce students to linguistics and pragmatics applied to the analysis of Spanish; specifically: pragmalinguistics, sociopragmatics and pragmatics of an interlanguage or transcultural pragmatics. During the lessons, we will adopt a pragmatic perspective in the study of Spanish with activities of analysis and reflection based on real materials. Secondly, we will deal with the fundamental theories of pragmatism (theory of enunciation, linguistic acts, inferential communication, studies on verbal courtesy, image or social prestige and strategies of verbal courtesy), as well as real cases to include pragmatic evidence. Afterwards, we will appreciate the different contents of the course starting and we will elaborate on the "pragmatic observations and reflections" applied to Spanish.

  • La relación entre pragmática y cultura: Cultura ≠ cultura ≠ kultura
  • La pragmática y sus componentes (Contexto y deícticos; enunciado ≠ oración; incorrecto ≠ inadecuado).
  • Más allá de un "espacio lógico" (Austin, 1962): la fuerza del lenguaje y los actos de habla (locutivo, ilocutivo, perlocutivo).
  • Tipos de actos de habla (Searle, 1969): asertivos/representativos, directivos, compromisivos, expresivos, declarativos.
  • Los niveles del significado (Grice, 1975): significar, implicar, implicaturar.
  • Las máximas conversasicionales que rigen la conversación (Grice, 1975).
  • La cortesía verbal y estrategias relacionadas con la imagen positiva y negativa (*ACTIVIDAD RELACIONADA CON LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN LINGÜÍSTICA APLICADA A LA ENSEÑANZA DE LENGUAS).
  • Análisis de errores pragmáticos y actos de hablas pragmáticamente inadecuados.


This third block will focus on analysing implementing what we have learned about the academic writing style in Spanish using samples from actual academic texts. This section will focus mostly on the scientific article, specifically:

  • El componente pragmático discursivo en el texto académico.
  • El concepto de género textual dentro del ámbito académico.
  • Características del texto académico y recursos lingüísticos propios del género: normativo, descontextualizado, objetivo, impersonal, neutro, etc.
  • Macroestructura del texto académico: estructuras y macrofunciones del texto académico (expositiva/explicativa y argumentativa).
  • Marcadores discursivos (organizadores, reformuladores, etc.) y conectores discursivos (aditivos, consecutivos, contraargumentativos, etc.)
  • Un género académico: el trabajo de fin de grado.
  • La norma académica y el sistema de citas (fuentes primarias y secundarias): Harvard.



- Analyse a didactic unit to recognise the theoretical principles underlying its design.

- Establish justified criteria to design teaching units that favour the development of a communicative and intercultural competence in Spanish as a foreign language.

- Formulate the learning objectives of a didactic unit and select the linguistic, pragmatic and strategic contents that are necessary to achieve them.

- Design a didactic sequence from previously published learning materials.


  • El Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para la Lenguas (MCER)
  • Enfoques metodológicos para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera (método tradicional, método directo, método audiolingual, enfoque oral, respuesta física total, enfoque natural, aprendizaje comunitario, método silencioso, sugestopedia, enfoque comunicativo, enfoque por tareas, gamificación etc. )
  • Metodologías deductivas vs inductivas
  • Presentación primer día de clase
  • Manejo de la clase
  • Presentación de lenguaje
  • Práctica de lenguaje
  • Corrección
  1. Consejo de Europa (2002): Marco común europeo de referencia para las lenguas: enseñanza, aprendizaje y evaluación. Versión en español, Madrid, Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, y Anaya. Disponible en la página web del Instituto Cervantes: http://cvc.cervantes.es/obref/marco
  2. Instituto Cervantes (2007): Plan Curricular del Instituto Cervantes. Niveles de referencia para el español. En línea https://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/plan_curricular/

5. Lettorato di Lingua Spagnola, Dott.ssa Ana Carvalho, 34 ore) https://www.unibo.it/it/didattica/insegnamenti/insegnamento/2020/465757


1A. Lapesa, R., 1981, Historia de la Lengua Española, Madrid: GREDOS (pp. 418-425) (*disponible en IOL)

1B. Moreno Fernández, F., 2000, Qué español enseñar, Madrid, Arco/Libros http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/publicaciones_centros/PDF/munich_2003-2004/04_entrevista.pdf

1B. Moreno Fernández, F., 1997. “¿Qué español hay que enseñar? Modelos lingüísticos en la enseñanza de español/LE”, Cuadernos Cervantes de la Lengua Española, Nº 14, pp. 7-15. (*disponible en IOL)

1C. Cestero, A. M, 2006. La comunicación no verbal y el estudio de su incidencia en fenómenos discursivos como la ironía. ELUA. Estudios de Lingüística. N. 20 pp. 57-77 http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/6074/1/ELUA_20_03.pdf

1C. Nascimento Dominique, N. (2005): “Comunicación no verbal: algunas diferencias gestuales entre España y Brasil”, Lingüística en la Red,http://www.linred.com

2. Escandell Vidal, V. (2004). Aportaciones de la Pragmática. En Sánchez Lobato & I. Santos Gargallo (Ed.), Vademécum para la formación de profesores (pp. 179-198). Madrid: SGEL. Recuperado de http://portal.uned.es/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/UNED_MAIN/LAUNIVERSIDAD/UBICACIONES/04/DOCENTE/MARIA_VICTORIA_ESCANDELL_VIDAL/PUBLICACIONES/APORTACIONES DE LA PRAGMÁTICA.PDF

3. Montolío, E. (coord.) (2000). Manual práctico de escritura académica.Barcelona: Ariel, 3 vols. (páginas obligatorias: 153-182) (*disponible en IOL)

3. Ainciburu, M. C. (2009). Cómo escribir un resumen (abstract) en español. En: Curso de español académico para economistas. Siena: EDisag (*disponible en IOL)

3. Universidad Antonio de Nebrija (en línea). Sugerencias generales para la escritura de un artículo. Revista Nebrija. Recuperado de: http://www.nebrija.com/revista-linguistica/pdf/listarevision.pdf

4. Capitolo 5 del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lengua https://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/marco/cvc_mer.pdf

** LETTURE COMPLETE REPERIBILI on-line: Virtuale https://virtuale.unibo.it/course/view.php?id=31794


Teaching methods

Considering that this is a language course, class participation is strongly encouraged. Practical exercises and explanations will be integrated throughout the course. Multimedia tools, games, activities and interactive audiovisual material will be used to stimulate students’ curiosity. Active participation in Spanish will be required through brainstorming, brain-imaging, and brainwriting; written commentary, oral interactions with other students, etc. The feedback, with comments from the instructor, will be to each individual, or to all the group in general depending on the type of activity underway.

Assessment methods

Students who have passed the written examination with Dr. Ana Carvalho, will be admitted to take the examination with the instructor Irene Buttazzi.

The exam includes:

- a written test (covering all the contents of the programme: 1, 2, 3, 4) and

- an oral interview, where they can demonstrate that they have acquired the theoretical and practical skills of linguistics, sociolinguistics, pragmatic and academic editing. The ability to express themselves and interact in the language will also be evaluated.


** For attending students, for attending students it is possible to choose whether to submit a written paper, as follows:

1. Active and original participation in the forums and planned activities at the IoL.

2. Submission of a written paper (academic writing) starting from the observation of empirical data.

3. Oral examination (Covering contents 1, 2, 4 in the programme).

** Submission of the written paper (attending students)

Each student will have to submit a written piece (from 2 to 3 pages) to the instructor. The first, second and third part of the course (sociolingüística, pragmática y redacción académica) are in preparation of the final presentation, nevertheless, in this part of the course students must NOT submit, but only develop, the topic of their final presentation (which will be written according to the academic standards, such as inclusion of citations and bibliographic references, see theme No. 3 of the programme).

At this point in the course, we will be shaping the content for the written paper (by explaining how to draft the text). The final written paper will be submitted via the e-learning space, and it will be related to the analysis and discussion of the sociolinguistic content (variedades del español / lenguaje no verbal) or the prammatic-discursive (contexto y deícticos / fuerza locutiva, ilocutiva, perlocutiva / actos de habla / implicaturas / cortesía verbal / análisis de errores pragmáticos) based on authentic materials in Spanish, i.e. videos, film excerpts, trailers, advertisements, television shows, recordings of real dialogues, fragments of literary works or novels in Spanish, etc. During the participatory sessions, students will have learned to observe real data and infer pragmatic information; these sessions will facilitate the writing of the final paper. Afterwards, some suggestions will be uploaded to YouTube (original contributions by the participants will be appreciated):

- Spluge (programa de humor)

- Un lugar extraño (programa emitido por Telemadrid)

- Camera Café (serie de humor emitida en Tele 5)

Once the type of authentic material has been chosen, students will have to:

1) Analyse a theoretical aspect (of their own preference) of the contents in the programme.

2) Comment on how the material may lead to a problem, misunderstanding or pragmatic error.

Criteria for evaluation and grading

CONTENT AND UTILISATION OF THE MATERIAL: Has the student attempted to select authentic, creative, and original material related to the theoretical concepts? Have the theoretical concepts been used for the analysis? Are the aspects that have been identified, clearly justified, argued for and explained?

STRUCTURE OF THE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT AND DRAFTING (COHESION): Are the ideas organised logically? Is there a clear introduction and conclusion to all ideas? Are the typical discursive markers of the written genre used? Are there missing accents? Is the text written in an academic register? Is the vocabulary specific and technical?

Furthermore, during in-class hours, cooperative and collaborative skills will be progressively enhanced, as well as strategic and inductive skills during the autonomous activities. Additionally, students are encouraged to enrich other contributions from classmates and, therefore, their ability to mediate.

For attending students, the oral exam focuses on the topics that are described in the programme (1,2,4). Students’ ability to express and interact in Spanish will also be evaluated.


Teaching tools


Normas Harvard en PDF (2012, 2013 y 2015).

  • http://etums.tums.ac.ir/FileManager/HARVARD_REFERENCING 2012.PDF
  • https://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/files/Harvard_referenci ng_2013.pdf
  • https://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/files/Har vard_referenci

Links to further information


Office hours

See the website of Irene Buttazzi


Quality education Gender equality

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.