28881 - Laboratory 2

Academic Year 2022/2023

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Agricultural Sciences and Technologies (cod. 9235)

Learning outcomes

Upon completion of the course, the student acquires practical knowledge about experimental methodology and data analysis in the field of agronomy and plant productions.

Course contents


The student is required to have knowledge of the basics of statistics, obtained during bachelor's degree, with particular reference to the knowledge necessary for data collection and processing, through descriptive and inferential statistics.
A little review of the main topics of basic statistics, which are necessary for understanding the topics that will be explained in the course, will be given in the first class. Knowledge of the English language contributes to the student's preparation, as some of the lecture material or scientific articles are in English.

Expected Competencies

Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to organize a scientific experiment in the field or in a controlled environment (e.g., laboratory) and will be able to evaluate the results from a statistical point of view.

Course content (approximately 12 hours of lecture and 8 hours of computer classroom and field exercises)

1) Review of basic statistics concepts: descriptive statistics, distributions of populations and samples, sampling theory.

2) Hypothesis testing, Student's t.

3) Non-parametric comparison tests.

4) Analysis of Variance: principles and calculation. Basic assumptions of ANOVA. a priori and a posteriori tests.

5) Proper planning of an experiment and experimental schemes.

6) Regressions and correlations.

7) Acquisition and management of experimental data.

8) Practical examples of experimental tests in the field of Plant

Production and scientific interpretation of the results of experiments in agronomy.

During the course, computer classroom and field exercises will be carried out, during which:
- statistical exercises concerning the topics covered in the theoretical part. Part of the data used for the exercises comes from "real" case studies.
- visits to real experimental tests under field and controlled environment conditions.


The lecturer's teaching materials will be made available online, in the form of handouts containing lecture presentations and in-depth scientific articles.

For further study, the following texts are recommended:
Pacini, B., Raggi, M., 2006. Statistics for the operational analysis of data. Ed. Carocci. EAN: 9788843036622.
Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A., 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research (2 ed.). John wiley and sons, NewYork. ISBN: 978-0-471-87092-0.

Teaching methods


Lectures are conducted in the classroom at the designated times, aided by the projection of prepared lecture materials, which are given to students at the end of the lectures.

Practical lessons

Practical lessons consist of: computer laboratory exercises and/or guided field visits (at the University of Bologna's Experimental Agricultural Company).
In view of the types of activities and teaching methods adopted, attendance of this training activity requires all students to carry out Modules 1 and 2 in e-learning mode and to participate in Module 3 of specific training on safety and health in the workplace. Indications about dates and methods of attendance of Module 3 can be found in the appropriate section of the course of study website.

Assessment methods

The verification of learning takes place through a final examination, which ascertains the acquisition of the expected knowledge and skills through the performance of a written computer-based test.

The test consists of a test with closed-ended questions in which the student must choose, from several answers, the correct one(s). Passing the test provides for the awarding of a passing grade.
During the test, no technical manuals or computational or multimedia aids are allowed.

Students can book for the examination test exclusively using the methods provided by the online Alma Esami system.

Teaching tools

Personal computer and video projector for classroom and computer lab activities.

EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL - lecture materials presented in class are available to the student in electronic format. Access to the material is allowed only to students enrolled in the lab.

Office hours

See the website of Lorenzo Negri


Quality education

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.