35638 - General Pathology Pathophysiology of Domestic Animals

Academic Year 2022/2023

  • Moduli: Cinzia Benazzi (Modulo 1) Barbara Brunetti (Modulo 2)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Veterinary Medicine (cod. 8617)

Learning outcomes

The course  General Pathology and Pathophysiology of Domestic Animals  aims to provide students with the intellectual tools and operating means for the recognition of the etiopathogenesis and histological features of elementary lesions, and their consequences on organs and systems.


At the end of the study:


  • knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the onset of changes from purely functional to morphologically overt;
  • knowledge of the terminology that defines the regressive processes (i.e., atrophy, degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis) and inflammatory, and concepts related to their pathogenesis.



  • make a differential diagnosis of the lesions presented during the course;
  • apply the general concepts acquired to the organs and systems considered and to recognize, through histopathological preparations, the main injury.



the student is able to:

  •         discuss his/her comments with fellow students and tutor;
  •          use additional resources available (the teaching Veterinary Portal, the web, etc. ..) to solve the problems proposed.

Course contents

The modules are part of C.I "General Pathology and Pathophysiology of A.D." CFU 7 with which  share the educational objectives.

At the end of module 1, the student knows the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to the establishment of purely functional to morphologically overt alterations. He/she knows the terminology defining regressive (atrophies, degeneration, apoptosis, and necrosis) and inflammatory processes, and the concepts related to their pathogenesis. Is able to apply the general concepts acquired to the pathophysiology of the apparatuses and to recognize, through histological preparations, the main lesions.

The final exam will be verbalized by prof. Cinzia Benazzi.


Lectures of module 1 will cover the following topics:

VETERINARY GENERAL PATHOLOGY: concept of disease. Physical, chemical, and biological causes of disease. Regressive processes (atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis, gangrene, calcifications). Pathology of progressive phenomena (hyperthrophy, hyperplasia). Circulatory disturbances (hyperemia, hemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism, ischemia, edema). Anemia. Acute and chronic inflammation (characteristics of the exudative inflammation and granulomas) and reparative processes

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY:  Concepts of cardiac, respiratory, digestive, kidney and shock pathophysiology.

Frontal lectures will be supplemented by practical lessons through which students can acquire the method that will lead them to the application of theoretical notions that in progression from the cell, organs/tissues and apparatuses will be a basic approach to a better understanding of diseases.


Material explained in the classroom by the lecturer can be found on Virtuale

General Pathology. Suggested texts.

  • Kumar V., Abbas A.K., Aster J.C. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease, 10th ed, 2020 (Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia).
  • Stevens A., Lowe J.S., Young B.: Wheater Istopatologia essenziale - Testo Atlante. III Edizione, 2004 (Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano)
  • Zachary J.F. McGavin M.D.: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease,6th ed., 2016 (Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, USA).


Zachary J.F. McGavin M.D.: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease,6th ed., 2016 (Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, USA).

In-depth readings

Gastrointestinal System

  • Karin A. Allenspach K.A., Jonathan P. Mochel, Yingzhou Du,
    Simon L. Priestnall et al.: Correlating Gastrointestinal Histopathologic Changes to Clinical Disease Activity in Dogs With Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Veterinary Pathology 2019, Vol. 56(3) 435-443
  • Arpaillange C., N'Guyen P., Loukil L.: Diarrea cronica nel cane. Summa 4, 7, 1998.
  • Benazzi C., Brunetti B., Sarli G.: La sindrome da malassorbimento nel cavallo. Malabsorption in the Horse. Ippologia 13(3), 1-17, 2002.
  • Bernard J.M., K. M. Newkirk, A. E. McRee, J. C. Whittemore, and E. C. Ramsay: Hepatic Lesions in 90 Captive Nondomestic Felids Presented for Autopsy. Veterinary Pathology 2015, Vol. 52(2) 369-376
  • Williams J.M., C. A. Duckworth, M. D. Burkitt, A. J. M. Watson, B. J. Campbell, and D. M. Pritchard: Epithelial Cell Shedding and Barrier Function: A Matter of Life and Death
    at the Small Intestinal Villus Tip. Veterinary Pathology 2015, Vol. 52(3) 445-455


  • Gogny M., Souilem O.: Evoluzione degli stati di shock con e senza trattamento. Summa 3, 19, 1993
  • Sarli G., Benazzi C., Testi F., Versura A.: Lo shock. I. Basi patogenetiche. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari 4, 13-21, 1999.
  • Benazzi C., Sarli G., Testi F., Versura A.: Lo shock. II. Fisiopatologia d'organo e cellulare. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 5, 7-15, 1999.

Urinary System

  • Benazzi C., Sarli G.: Fisiopatologia dell'insufficienza renale. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari 9, 17-25, 2000.
  • Bonnet J.-M., Cadoré J.-L. : Fisiopatologia dell'insufficienza renale. Summa, 8, 11, 1996.
  • Brown C.A. et al: Chronic kidney disease in aged cats: clinical features, morphology, and proposed pathogenesis. Veterinary Pathology 53(2), 309-326, 2016.
  • Cianciolo R.E, S. L. Benali, and L. Aresu: Aging in the Canine Kidney. Veterinary Pathology 2016, Vol. 53(2) 299-308
  • Jones Emily,Chiara Palmieri,Mary Thompson, Karen Jackson
    Rachel Allavena: Feline Idiopathic Cystitis: Pathogenesis,Histopathology and Comparative Potential. J. Comp. Path 2021, 185, 18-29
  • Khan T.M. , Khan K. N. M.: Acute Kidney Injury and
    Chronic Kidney Disease. Veterinary Pathology 52(3), 441-444, 2015.
  • Lane I.F et al.: L'insufficienza renale acuta. Veterinaria 11, 51, 1997
  • McLeland S.M, R. E. Cianciolo R.E, Duncan C.G, and J. M. Quimby: A Comparison of Biochemical and Histopathologic Staging in Cats With Chronic Kidney Disease. Veterinary Pathology 2015, Vol. 52(3) 524-534

Respiratory System

  • Drobatz K.J., Concannon K.: L'edema polmonare non cardiogeno. Veterinaria, 11 (3), 47, 1997.
  • Ferrari C.R., Jim Cooley, Nisma Mujahid, Lais R. Costa,
    Robert W. Wills, Melanie E. Johnson, and Cyprianna E. Swiderski: Horses With Pasture Asthma Have Airway
    Remodeling That Is Characteristic of Human Asthma. Veterinary Pathology 2018, Vol. 55(1) 144-158
  • Monne Rodriguez J.M., Gail Leeming, Kernt Ko¨ hler,
    and Anja Kipar: Feline Herpesvirus Pneumonia:
    Investigations Into the Pathogenesis. Veterinary Pathology
    2017, Vol. 54(6) 922-932
  • Thiebault J.J.: Edema polmonare acuto. Summa, 9, 69, 1996.



  • Ford J, Laura McEndaffer, Randall Renshaw, Alex Molesan, and Kathleen Kelly: Parvovirus Infection Is Associated With Myocarditis and Myocardial Fibrosis in Young Dogs. Veterinary Pathology 2017, Vol. 54(6) 964-971

  • Machado Rolim V., Assis Casagrande R., Terezinha Barth Wouters A., Driemeier D., Petinatti Pavarini S.: Myocarditis caused by Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Five Cats with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. J. Comp. Path. 2016, Vol. 154, 3e8

  • Solanes N., J. Bobi, M. P. Dagleish, F. R. Jimenez, G. A. Gray, M. Sabate, O. Tura-Ceideand and M. Rigol: Targeting the Main Anatomopathological Features in Animal Models of Myocardial Infarction. J. Comp. Path. 2020, Vol. 176, 33e38

Teaching methods

Teaching methods and different types of lecture

a. academic (frontal)

b. practical (tutorial supervised or “hands on”)

There are a total of 60 hours of teaching, including 50 theoretical hours conducted as lectures and 10 (x4) hours per student of practical part.

Frontal lectures are conducted in the classroom with the aid of computer and video projector. Topics covered will be accompanied by original or downloadable images from sites provided by the lecturer (and featured on the learning materials site) that are freely accessible to students. A free web searchabile image database (Noah's arkive) will also be used, which allows viewing of both macroscopic and histopathological images of the topics covered in class.

Practical work will be conducted partly with virtual slides and partly with the use of slides evaluated under microscopes. Students will be divided into four groups, each of which will be devoted to the same practice topic. The practical hours will take place in packages of 2 hours per group and will consist of 10 hours of 60 minutes each/student. The work will be based on the projection of virtual slides and the evaluation of real slides to be discussed by the students together with the lecturer. They will then have the slides in the form of an Internet address to connect to at their convenience after the exercise. Associated with this activity will be the projection of macro photos that correspond to the virtual preparations to achieve a critical skill. Tests will then be given via the Kahoot self-assessment platform with the supervision of the lecturer who will further explain the injuries that will gradually be proposed.

The purpose of the practical lessons is twofold:

- To familiarize the student with the light microscope - acquisition of professionalizing skills;

- To develop the ability to recognize organs and lesions and to use the correct language for histological description - acquisition of diagnostic and communication skills

Assessment methods

Procedures concerning the evaluation of the students

Student Assessment Methods.

The examination will be conducted in written mode to be concluded in 2 hs with 100 questions with both multiple-choice and open-ended answers divided as follows: 60 questions from General Pathology and Pathophysiology of Domestic Animals + 40 questions from Veterinary Immunopathology and Oncology and to the practical test that includes slides from both teachings. The student can chose to take one part at a time.
The minimum grade for passing the exam, i.e., the set of teachings comprising the integrated course, will be 60 to which will correspond a grade of 18 corresponding to 60% correct answers. The grade will increase proportionally to the number of correct answers given, up to a maximum of 30/30. The final grade for the integrated course "Veterinary General Pathology" consists of the weighted average of the final grades of the modules that compose it. 
The slide recognition test is an eligibility. A date is agreed upon on the day of the written examination.
The student has the right to refuse the verbalization of the proposed passing grade 1 time (according to the University Teaching Regulations ART.16, paragraph 5). At least 15 days must elapse between one test and the next.
The examination test will cover the program of the last year of the course, regardless of the year in which the student attended.
The end-of-course examination aims to assess the achievement of the main teaching objectives of the course:
1) recognize lesions that can be found histologically in different organs and apparatuses and know how to differentiate them according to their etiopathogenesis
2) classify lesions into regressive, progressive, and inflammatory, acute or chronic processes of individual organs or apparatuses, reparative processes as well as circulatory disorders.
3) evaluate the repercussions they may have on the functioning of organs and apparatuses.

Practical test:
The purpose of the practical test is to assess that the student can recognize an organ lesion and describe it using appropriate terminology. It is based on the recognition of a histological preparation, also in digital format, from among those that the student has viewed during the practical classes and which remains available to him/her at all times outside of class thanks to sites provided by the lecturer. These sites are the following: https://unibo.smartzoom.com/ and https://www.askjpc.org/vspo/ and the Teaching Portal site.
Students with DISABILITY or DSA, must contact the lecturer to have adaptations to the didactics in the lecture phase or in the final evaluation phase, by email, entering in C/C the reference personnel by whom he/she is followed (of the appropriate DISABILITY or DSA service) and the Department contact person who is currently Prof. Fabiana Trombetti.

Modalities for booking the exam and dates of the appointments

Students can book for the exam exclusively using the methods provided by the Alma Esami online system. For any information on how to book, log on to: (https://almaesami.unibo.it/almaesami/welcome.htm)

Teaching tools





  Teaching material

Tools. Video projector, PC connected to a video camera mounted on an optical microscope, Youtube and Learning Portal, besides the following: https://unibo.smartzoom.com/ e https://www.askjpc.org/vspo/ .



Office hours

See the website of Cinzia Benazzi

See the website of Barbara Brunetti


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.