35638 - General Pathology Pathophysiology of Domestic Animals

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Moduli: Cinzia Benazzi (Modulo 1) Barbara Brunetti (Modulo 2)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Veterinary Medicine (cod. 8617)

Learning outcomes

The course  General Pathology and Pathophysiology of Domestic Animals  aims to provide students with the intellectual tools and operating means for the recognition of the etiopathogenesis and histological features of elementary lesions, and their consequences on organs and systems.


At the end of the study:


  • knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the onset of changes from purely functional to morphologically overt;
  • knowledge of the terminology that defines the regressive processes (i.e., atrophy, degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis) and inflammatory, and concepts related to their pathogenesis.



  • make a differential diagnosis of the lesions presented during the course;
  • apply the general concepts acquired to the organs and systems considered and to recognize, through histopathological preparations, the main injury.



the student is able to:

  •         discuss his/her comments with fellow students and tutor;
  •          use additional resources available (the teaching Veterinary Portal, the web, etc. ..) to solve the problems proposed.

Course contents

VETERINARY GENERAL PATHOLOGY: concept of disease. Physical, chemical, and biological causes of disease. Regressive processes (atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis, gangrene, calcifications). Pathology of progressive phenomena (hyperthrophy, hyperplasia). Circulatory disturbances (hyperemia, hemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism, ischemia, edema). Anemia. Acute and chronic inflammation (characteristics of the exudative inflammation and granulomas) and reparative processes


PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: pathophysiology of the temperature. Pathophysiology of the heart, digestive system (including liver and pancreas), respiratory system, and kidney. Shock.


General Pathology

  • Kumar V., Abbas A.K., Aster J.C. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease, 10th ed, 2020 (Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia).
  • Stevens A., Lowe J.S., Young B.: Wheater Istopatologia essenziale - Testo Atlante. III Edizione, 2004 (Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano)
  • Zachary J.F. McGavin M.D.: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease,5th ed., 2012 (Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, USA).


Zachary J.F. McGavin M.D.: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease,5th ed., 2012 (Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, USA).

Gastrointestinal System

  • Karin A. Allenspach K.A., Jonathan P. Mochel, Yingzhou Du,
    Simon L. Priestnall et al.: Correlating Gastrointestinal Histopathologic Changes to Clinical Disease Activity in Dogs With Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Veterinary Pathology 2019, Vol. 56(3) 435-443
  • Arpaillange C., N'Guyen P., Loukil L.: Diarrea cronica nel cane. Summa 4, 7, 1998.
  • Benazzi C., Brunetti B., Sarli G.: La sindrome da malassorbimento nel cavallo. Malabsorption in the Horse. Ippologia 13(3), 1-17, 2002.
  • Bernard J.M., K. M. Newkirk, A. E. McRee, J. C. Whittemore, and E. C. Ramsay: Hepatic Lesions in 90 Captive Nondomestic Felids Presented for Autopsy. Veterinary Pathology 2015, Vol. 52(2) 369-376
  • Williams J.M., C. A. Duckworth, M. D. Burkitt, A. J. M. Watson, B. J. Campbell, and D. M. Pritchard: Epithelial Cell Shedding and Barrier Function: A Matter of Life and Death
    at the Small Intestinal Villus Tip. Veterinary Pathology 2015, Vol. 52(3) 445-455


  • Gogny M., Souilem O.: Evoluzione degli stati di shock con e senza trattamento. Summa 3, 19, 1993
  • Sarli G., Benazzi C., Testi F., Versura A.: Lo shock. I. Basi patogenetiche. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari 4, 13-21, 1999.
  • Benazzi C., Sarli G., Testi F., Versura A.: Lo shock. II. Fisiopatologia d'organo e cellulare. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 5, 7-15, 1999.

Urinary System

  • Benazzi C., Sarli G.: Fisiopatologia dell'insufficienza renale. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari 9, 17-25, 2000.
  • Bonnet J.-M., Cadoré J.-L. : Fisiopatologia dell'insufficienza renale. Summa, 8, 11, 1996.
  • Brown C.A. et al: Chronic kidney disease in aged cats: clinical features, morphology, and proposed pathogenesis. Veterinary Pathology 53(2), 309-326, 2016.
  • Cianciolo R.E, S. L. Benali, and L. Aresu: Aging in the Canine Kidney. Veterinary Pathology 2016, Vol. 53(2) 299-308
  • Jones Emily,Chiara Palmieri,Mary Thompson, Karen Jackson
    Rachel Allavena: Feline Idiopathic Cystitis: Pathogenesis,Histopathology and Comparative Potential. J. Comp. Path 2021, 185, 18-29
  • Khan T.M. , Khan K. N. M.: Acute Kidney Injury and
    Chronic Kidney Disease. Veterinary Pathology 52(3), 441-444, 2015.
  • Lane I.F et al.: L'insufficienza renale acuta. Veterinaria 11, 51, 1997
  • McLeland S.M, R. E. Cianciolo R.E, Duncan C.G, and J. M. Quimby: A Comparison of Biochemical and Histopathologic Staging in Cats With Chronic Kidney Disease. Veterinary Pathology 2015, Vol. 52(3) 524-534

Respiratory System

  • Drobatz K.J., Concannon K.: L'edema polmonare non cardiogeno. Veterinaria, 11 (3), 47, 1997.
  • Ferrari C.R., Jim Cooley, Nisma Mujahid, Lais R. Costa,
    Robert W. Wills, Melanie E. Johnson, and Cyprianna E. Swiderski: Horses With Pasture Asthma Have Airway
    Remodeling That Is Characteristic of Human Asthma. Veterinary Pathology 2018, Vol. 55(1) 144-158
  • Monne Rodriguez J.M., Gail Leeming, Kernt Ko¨ hler,
    and Anja Kipar: Feline Herpesvirus Pneumonia:
    Investigations Into the Pathogenesis. Veterinary Pathology
    2017, Vol. 54(6) 922-932
  • Thiebault J.J.: Edema polmonare acuto. Summa, 9, 69, 1996.


· McMillan F. D. et al. : Fever : pathophysiology and rational therapy. Comp. Cont. Educ. 7, 845, 1985.



  • Ford J, Laura McEndaffer, Randall Renshaw, Alex Molesan, and Kathleen Kelly: Parvovirus Infection Is Associated With Myocarditis and Myocardial Fibrosis in Young Dogs. Veterinary Pathology 2017, Vol. 54(6) 964-971

  • Machado Rolim V., Assis Casagrande R., Terezinha Barth Wouters A., Driemeier D., Petinatti Pavarini S.: Myocarditis caused by Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Five Cats with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. J. Comp. Path. 2016, Vol. 154, 3e8

  • Solanes N., J. Bobi, M. P. Dagleish, F. R. Jimenez, G. A. Gray, M. Sabate, O. Tura-Ceideand and M. Rigol: Targeting the Main Anatomopathological Features in Animal Models of Myocardial Infarction. J. Comp. Path. 2020, Vol. 176, 33e38

Teaching methods

Teaching methods and different types of lecture

a. academic (frontal)

b. practical (tutorial supervised or “hands on”)


The course is based on 60 hours in total: 50 hours are theoretically conducted as lectures and 10 (x4) as practical work per student.

The lectures are carried out in the classroom with the help of a computer and a projector. A database of images (Noah's Arkive) is also used, which allows the viewing of gross and histopathological images of the topics covered in class.

The practical lessons are carried out dividing the students into four groups, and each group will receive the same topics of practical work. The practical hours, in packages of 2 hours per each group, consist of 10 hours of 60 minutes for each student and are structured as follows: 10 hours in the microscopy room, where the students can look at histological slides initially on the monitor connected to the microscope by a video camera (group work), and subsequently through the observation of histological slides using a light microscope (individual work). For each slide, the student has at his/her disposal a card with the description. The lecturer is systematically present to introduce the concepts and to give all the necessary explanation. For practical lessons the student must wear their lab coat.

 If the COVID19 emergency persists, we will continue with the virtual slides, providing the students with website addresses to connect during the practicals and when studing on their own.

The purposes of the practical lessons are twofold:

• Students acquire familiarity with the optical microscope- acquisition of professional skills;

• Students develop the ability to recognize lesions and learn how to use the correct language for the description of histological lesions - acquisition of diagnostic skills and communication

In the event that the covid19 pandemic continues, the projection of virtual slides will also be used, which students will have at their disposal in the form of an internet address to connect to, after the lab work.

Assessment methods

Procedures concerning the evaluation of the students


 The examination consists of an oral part that takes place simultaneously with the oral test of "Immunopathology and veterinary oncology", and a practical test which includes slides of both subjects. It is possible to take the three parts of the exam separately, but in a time span  of 6 months, beyond which the individual parts will no longer be valid and the student shall re-sit the entire exam.


The  exam aims to assess the achievement of the main objectives of the workshop:

1) after recognizing the lesions histologically found in the various organs and systems considered during the course, the students are required to differentiate them from the others object of the course;

2) the students classify the injury processes into regressive and progressive,  acute or chronic inflammation, and healing process, as well as into circulatory disturbances affecting individual organs or systems;

3) the students assess the impact they may have on the functions of organs and systems.



Practical test:

The purpose of the practical test is the assessment of  a lesion  by the student,  using appropriate terminology. It is based on the recognition of a histopathological slide, among those accessible to the student  during practical lessons. A lot of slides are also available on the portal.


The test is passed if the candidate is given a grade higher than 18/30.



Oral exam:

The purpose of the oral examination is to test the students' ability to apply their knowledge and carry out the necessary logical-deductive connections.

It is usually based on two questions, one concerning  the general part, the other relevant to pathophysiology.


The final grade of the course "Veterinary General Pathology" consists of the synthesis of the final evaluations of the different parts;   the vote shall be recorded immediately.



Procedures concerning the booking and dates of the exam sessions


Students can be booked for the exam using only  the online system Alma Exams. For further information on how to book, go to: (https://almaesami.unibo.it/almaesami/welcome.htm)

Teaching tools





  Teaching material

Instruments :


Video projector, PC connected to a camera mounted on a light microscope, light microscopes.



Office hours

See the website of Cinzia Benazzi

See the website of Barbara Brunetti


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.