00722 - Mineralogy

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education Sustainable cities Responsible consumption and production Climate Action

Academic Year 2022/2023

Learning outcomes

The studentwill have a knowledge of the most important rock-forming minerals and of those less common or rare but of economic or applicative interest.

Course contents

Definition of mineral. Crystal morphology: crystallographic axes, crystal classes and systems. Internal order of crystals: three dimensional lattices, illustration of crystal structures.
Crystal chemistry: coordination principle, polymorphism and isomorphism with examples. Physical properties: cleavage, hardness, colour, luster, specific gravity, electrical, magneticand optical properties. Short accounts on minerogenetic processes. Mineral classification and in particular the rock-forming minerals. Exercises and laboratory on external forms and optical properties of the most common minerals.
X-ray diffraction methodologies, Bragg's equation, X-ray powder diffractometry. Scanning Electron Microscopy and EDS X-Ray Spectroscopy.
Application of some minerals to biology and environmental and structural fields (phosphates, carbonates and phyllosilicates).


- C. Klein. Mineralogia. Ia edizione italiana. Zanichelli, Bologna, 2004

- A. Mottana, R. Crespi, G. Liborio. Minerali e rocce. Mondadori

- G. Valdrè, U.Valdrè. Misure e Complementi di Fisica, CLUEB Bologna

-A.Putnis, Introduction to Mineral Science, Cambridge University Press.

- Fotocopie delle slides usate a lezione.

Teaching methods

General and theoretical mineralogical aspects are explained during the lessons. The course includes practicals in class and in laboratory. The traininghas the aim to give the studentpractical toolsto characterise the most common minerals. Mineralogical optics, X-ray diffraction and SEM labs sessions will be used for the microstructural characterization of minerals.


Considering the type of activities and the adopted teaching methods, the students of this course are required to attend the e-learning Modules 1 and 2 and the Module 3 in presence regarding the specific security and safety formation in the academic environment.

Assessment methods

Oral examination. Written examination may be envisaged.

Teaching tools

PC-laptop and overhead projector; models of crystal lattices for the study of the internal order and structure; natural samples for macroscopic identification of the most common minerals, X-ray and optical laboratories, Scanning Electron Microscopy; mineral identification sotware.

Links to further information


Office hours

See the website of Giovanni Valdrè