84244 - Scientific Research Methodology

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2022/2023

Learning outcomes

Understand the Scientific Method as the basis for scientific inquiry, with reference to biomedical research. Summarize the goals, structure, creation process, and types of scientific literature in the biomedical sciences. Utilize bibliographic and biomedical resourses to locate and critically review scientific literature related to a specific question.

Course contents

Lecture 1

Basic principles of scientific methodology (how to formulate research questions; how to translate concepts into concrete search terms; how to plan the research). The fundamentals of evidence-based medicine. Explanatory and pragmatic randomized clinical trials. Biases and confounding factors.

Lecture 2

Levels of evidence in scientific research and the Cochrane collaboration. How to use biomedical search engines databases and consult guidelines. How to critically read the scientific literature. How to keep up-to-date and follow the most valid and appropriate evidence.

Lecture 3

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: a basic instruction manual. A practical example of literature search in PubMed databases: how to build evidence-based search strings and filters for the identification of all relevant studies to answer clinical questions.

Teaching methods

Interactive lectures and practical examples of bibliographical research.

Assessment methods

Written test (for examination dates, see almaesami.unibo.it)

The test consists of 32 4-choice questions. Only one answer is correct. There are no penalties for wrong or blank answers.

The test must be completed in 45 minutes.

Module CFU Questions

History of Medicine 1 4

Ethics and Behavioural Sciences 2 8

Medical Statistics and Epidemiology 2 8

Scientific Research Methodology 1 4

Determinant of Health and Disease 2 8

Number of right answers


31/32 30L

30 30

29 29

28 28

27 27

26 26

25 25

24 24

23 23

22 22

21 21

20 20

19 19

18 18

<18 Fail

≥18 and 0 right answers in any module: Fail

The test must be completed in 45 minutes.

Grade acceptance/refusal

Grades are published within 3 days on AlmaEsami.

The student can refuse the grade within 5 days from publication by sending an e-mail to Prof. Rucci (paola.rucci2@unibo.it) and the Program coordinator (medicine.surgery@unibo.it).

All refusals must be sent from the institutional e-mail address @studio.unibo.it

After 6 days from publication, the acceptance will be taken for granted and the exam will be recorded.

Office hours

See the website of Davide Gori