35301 - Veterinary Physiology Part 2

Course Unit Page

  • Teacher Diego Bucci

  • Learning modules Diego Bucci (Modulo 1)
    Nadia Govoni (Modulo 2)

  • Credits 6

  • SSD VET/02

  • Teaching Mode Traditional lectures (Modulo 1)
    Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)

  • Language Italian

  • Campus of Bologna

  • Degree Programme Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Veterinary Medicine (cod. 8617)

  • Course Timetable from Feb 20, 2023 to May 26, 2023

    Course Timetable from Mar 27, 2023 to May 25, 2023


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being Quality education Life on land

Academic Year 2022/2023

Learning outcomes

At the end of this course the student will acquire knowledge of the cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory, renal, and reproductive systems of domestic animals with emphasis on physiologic control mechanisms and interrelationships of body systems.

Course contents

This course is part of the Integrated course in "Physiology II, ethology and endocrinology"


Frontal classes - Module 1 - Prof Bucci

Skeletal muscle. Muscle contraction. Mechanical properties of skeletal muscle. Mechanisms of muscular contraction. The cardiovascular system and blood flow. The heart: gross structure and myocardial cells. Electrophysiology of the heart. Mechanical activity and regulation of the heart. Control mechanisms of the circulatory systems. Regional and foetal circulations. Mechanics of respiration. Pulmonary ventilation. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Regulation of respiration. Respiratory clearance. Anatomy of the kidney. Glomerular filtration. Tubular transport. Renal clearance. Concentration of urine. Acid-base regulation and the excretion of bicarbonate, hydrogen ion and ammonia. Micturition.


Practice - Module 2 - Dr Govoni

  • Through the help of a digital support (Virtual Physiology - SimMuscle), students will have the opportunity to perform interactive exercises on some aspects of skeletal muscle physiology such as excitation-contraction coupling, single shock and tetanic contraction, muscle fatigue and isometric-isotonic contraction.
  • Auscultation of heart tones with the stethoscope. Evaluation of heart rate, ventilation rate and arterial pulse on small species.
  • Acquisition of a 3-lead electrocardiographic trace with verification of the correct positioning of the electrodes, analysis of the heart rate, and bases for the analysis of the P-QRS-T wave.
  • Evaluation of maximum and minimum arterial pressure using a manual aneroid sphygmomanometer. Discussion on the problems in measuring blood pressure in pets and instruments to use.
  • Evaluation of some chemical-physical characteristics of simulated urine samples: pH, specific weight, glycosuria and proteinuria. Discussion on the physiological significance of the different measurements found.

At the end of each activity multiple choice tests will be proposed to verify learning / self-assessment. During the test, students will have free access to teaching material and will be encouraged to interact with each other and with the teacher.


Klein G. B. Cunningham's Textbook of Veterinary Physiology, Elsevier ed. (2019).

Aguggini G., Beghelli V., Giulio L.F Fisiologia degli animali domestici con elementi di etologia,UTET, (1998).

Dukes', Fisiologia degli animali domestici Ed. IDELSON GNOCCHI (2002)

Sjaastad, Sand, Hove. Fisiologia degli Animali Domestici. Ed. It. a cura di C. Tamanini. CEA (2013)

Teaching methods

The course will be organized in frontal lessons and practices in groups in laboratory. 

Assessment methods

According to the actual regulations, the student is required to attend both lessons and practices. The final exam will be held in presence in  written form and it will be composed of open short-answer questions.In particular, the exam is composed of 80 questions: 60 - 1 point questions; 16 -2 points questions and 4 -4 points questions to assess both knowledge, competences and communication skills. The "integrated course" exam will take 150 min. The exam will be passed with a final overall votation od 18/30; maximum graduation is 30/30 and in this case the teacher could decide whether or not attributing the "cum laude" evaluation.

Due to pandemic situation,  the student could require to sustain an online oral exam in which she/he should demonstrate to know all the items present in the program and should  to be able to link the different arguments, to have a deep knowledge of the topics and to possess an adequate techincal language.

EVALUATION OF STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS Particular attention will be given to the evaluation of students certified in accordance with Law 104/90 and Law 170/2010, or students who are recognized as having a special educational need. These students should contact the teacher by email, (cc the personnel form central offices for students with disability or with University SLD (https://site.unibo.it/studenti-con-disabilita-e-dsa/it). The person in charge of this service in our Department is Dr. Fabiana Trombetti.

The student has the right to refuse the positive grade proposed once (University teaching regulations ART. 16, paragraph 5)


Teaching tools

For the lessons slides will be used together with videos; for practices lab and ambulatory equipment will be used.

Office hours

See the website of Diego Bucci

See the website of Nadia Govoni