31866 - Extraction of Phyto-derivatives II

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being

Academic Year 2022/2023

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the students acquire the theoretical preparation for the development of strategies for extracting pure phytochemicals.The student is able to assess the quality of herbal products through laboratory activities.

Course contents


-Lab safety, chemicals, solvents, lab equipment and instrumentations

-Drying of solids and apparatus. Drying of liquids or solutions of organic compounds in organic solvents: drying agents.

Extraction techniques:

 Types of extracts: fluid, springs, dry. Essential oils.

Classical techniques:

Solid-liquid extraction: Maceration, infusion, decoction, percolation. Tinctures.

Distillation techniques: Simple distillation. Steam distillation. Fractional distillation at atmospheric and reduced pressure. Molecular distillation.

Modern techniques:

Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE, Naviglio Estrattore).

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, PHWE). Ionic liquid-assisted extraction (ILAE). Enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE).

Sustainable extraction of phytochemicals, nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds from biomass and waste.

Purification techniques:

Sublimation. Crystallization. Chromatography.



-Purification of terpenes: camphor from aerial parts of Cinnamomum camphora

-Extraction and purification of salicylic acid from bark of Salix alba

-Extraction of chlorophyll from the leaves of Spinacea oleracea

-Extraction of alkaloids from Piper nigrum (fructis)

-Checking for possible adulteration in two dried herbal drugs and in a herbal product: Calendula officinalis, Arnica montana, standard di Boiron

-Extraction of ginsenosides from Panax ginsen

-Steam distillation of eugenol contained in Eugenia caryophyllata and of cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamomum zeylanicum

-Extraction of anthraquinones in Rhamnus purshianae

-Separation of hesperidin from orange peel with Soxhlet apparatus

-Sustainable extraction of lycopene from tomato waste.


1) Vogel. Chimica Organica Pratica. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Seconda Edizione, Milano 1988

2) R. M. Roberts, J.C. Gilbert, S. F. Martin. Chimica Organica Sperimentale. Zanichelli, Bologna 2003

3) A.J. Handely. Extraction Methods In Organic Analysis. Sheffield Academic Press, Canada 1999

4) D.L. Pavia, G. M. Lampman, G.S. Kriz. Il Laboratorio Di Chimica Organica, Edizioni Sorbona , Milano 1994

5) P.M. Dewick. Chimica, Biosintesi E Bioattivita' Delle Sostanze Naturali. Piccin, Padova 2000

6) Marco D'ischia La Chimica Organica In Laboratorio Piccin Padova 2002

7) Paul H. List, Peter C. Scmidt I Farmaci Di Origine Vegetale Tecnologie Di Estrazione Delle Piante Medicinali, Hoepli 1993

8) Natural Product Isolation: An Overview Book Series Methods in Biotechnology, ISSN 1940-6061 (Print) 1940-607X (Online) Volume Volume 20 Edition Second Edition

9) Slides and lecture notes, selected references will be provided during the class

Teaching methods

Considering the activities and teaching methods adopted in this course, attending it requires the students to have already completed modules 1 and 2 (in e-learning mode at this web address [https://elearning-sicurezza.unibo.it/?lang=en], as well as module 3 (in person) of the specific "Health and Safety in places of study" course. An updated schedule and the manner of attending module 3 are available in the corresponding section of the Graduation Programme webpage [https://corsi.unibo.it/laurea/ScienzeFarmaceutiche/corsi-formazione-sicurezza].

The course consists of 24 h lectures, wherein the main extraction and purification techniques and methodologies applied to the different classes of phytoderivatives are discussed.

The course will also include 36 h laboratory activities. There will be single seat laboratory activities, aimed at providing to each student the opportunity to apply the different extraction/purification methods of herbal drugs (outlined in theoretical form during lectures), by firsthand using the required techniques and methodologies.

Assessment methods

The exam will consist in an oral discussion aimed at assessing students' understanding of the subjects presented during lectures, involving the comment of a laboratory experience among those developed during laboratory activities, followed by two questions on general topics. The student must prepare the laboratory notebook, which has to be sent by e-mail to the teacher at least 3 days before taking the oral exam.

Teaching tools

Videoprojector, pc, laboratory

Office hours

See the website of Elisa Uliassi