66992 - Organic Chemistry (A-L)

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2022/2023

Learning outcomes

After completing the course, the student will have the knowledge necessary to the understanding and use of the main organic compounds in the level of classification, structure and properties. The student also acquires the main concepts useful for the interpretation of the reactivity of organic compounds. Finally, through simple experiments of preparation and isolation of organic compounds, the student completes and builds their knowledge of basic organic chemistry, also useful to the understanding of biological compounds.

Course contents

  1. The basic information related to electronic structure and hybridization of the carbon atom, nature of the chemical bonds, polarity and electronegativity. Will be breafly discussed during the introductory lesson. These information are in fact part of the course in General and Inorganic Chemistry of the first semester. 
  2. Functional groups. Description and recognition of the main functional groups: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, halides, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, thiols, amines, carboxylic acids, esters, amides, anhydrides, acyl halides. The IUPAC system of nomenclature.
  3. Alkanes and cycloalkanes. Nomenclature. Concept of isomerism and empirical formula. Structural formula. Structure and conformations of alkanes. Ring strain and conformations of cycloalkanes.
  4. Stereochemistry. Definitions. Chirality. Stereogenic. Assignment of the absolute configuration: diastereoisomers. meso compounds. Compounds with two stereocenters. Fischer projections. Brief survey on chirality in biology.
  5. Alkyl halides. Structure, properties and nomenclature. Preparation: radical alogenation of alkanes. Nucleophilic substitution, SN1, SN2, stereochemistry of SN; elimination reaction E1 and E2.
  6. Alcohols, phenols and ethers: Nomenclature. Physical Properties. Reaction of alcohols. Reactions of oxidation and reduction. Epoxides reaction. Reactions of epoxides. Thiols.
  7. Alkenes and Alkynes. Structure, properties and nomenclature. Isomers of C=C bond. Electrophilic addition to C=C double bond, addition of alogenhydric acids, water, alcohols, hydrogen. Structure and stability of carbocations. Addition of oxygen (oxiranes). Conjugated diene. Acids and bases. Alkynes. Nomenclature, structure and acidity of alkynes. Reaction acetylide anion. Reaction with various electrophiles.
  8. Aromatic Compounds. Aromatic hydrocarbons. Resonance. The Hückel rule. Electrophilic aromatic substitution. Halogenation of benzene. Alkylation reaction according to Friedel-Crafts. Halogenation, nitration, and sulfonation of benzene. Reactivity of aromatic compounds in the aromatic substitution reactions. Effect of substituents: activating or deactivating group.
  9. Carbonyl compounds. Structure and reactivity of the carbonyl group. Reaction of nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl compounds. Reactions of addition of alcohols, HCN, amines, Grignard reagents. Attack hydride ions. Reduction with NaBH4. Oxidation of carbonyl group.
  10. Carboxylic acids and derivatives: nomenclature. Structure of carboxylic acids. Acidity. Reaction Nucleophilic acyl. Reaction of carboxylic acids. Hydrolyisis of esters.
  11. Keto-enol tautomery. Reactivity of enols. Formations of enolates. Reactivity of enolates. Aldol condensation. Aldol condensation cross.
  12. Amines: nomenclature, structure and reactivity. Reactions of amines. Alkaloids: notes .
  13. Natural products, carbohydrates, structure, stereochemistry, nomenclature of monosaccarids; di- and polysaccarides: lipids, fatty acids and triglicerids,;  aminoacids, structure and stereochemistry, proteinogenic aminoacids; peptidic bond, polypeptides and proteins.


Chimica Organica - Bruice et al; Terza Edizione Edises

Teaching methods

Frontal course with slides projected in class and commented with the help of interactive screens or blackboard.

Assessment methods

Written exam

Teaching tools

Copies of the slides in pdf will be provided to the students.

 The slides will NOT contain all the information discussed during the lessons. 

Office hours

See the website of Walter Cabri

See the website of Paola Franchi