98045 - Technologies for Formulations

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Responsible consumption and production Partnerships for the goals

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

The purpose of this course is to present and discuss the main technologies adopted for the manufacture of formulated chemical products. Tools for the understanding and the quantitative analysis of typical production plants will be provided. The student will be introduced to the most widely adopted formulation technologies and relevant equipment: miscible fluids mixing, dissolution of solids in liquids, mixing of solids, solid suspension and distribution, immiscible liquid-liquid mixing and emulsification, gas-liquid dispersion. Skills for a quantitative, though simplified, prediction of the equipment behaviour will be provided.

Course contents

Introduction to mixing technologies for the formulation industry

Dispersion of fine particles in liquid media;



-Breakdown of agglomerates and aggregates

-Stability of flocculation

Dynamics of emulsification


-droplet formation

-Implication for process design, batch vs continuous

Suspension of solids

-Definition of states of suspension

-Mechanism and models of particle suspension

-mass transfer with solid particles

Gas-Liquid dispersion and mixing

-classification of gas-liquid mixing

-bubble size and coalescence

-gas-liquid mass transfer

Scale up

-scale up in turbulent regime

- scale up in gas-liquid applications

- scale up in solid-liquid applications

Examples of applications in pharmaceutical, home and personal care industries, chemical/catalyst manufacture, food, will be discussed to contextualise the contents of the course.


N. Harnby, M. F. Edwards, A. W. Nienow Mixing in the process industries.

eBook ISBN: 9780080536583, Paperback ISBN: 9780750637602, Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann

[Though warmly recommended to the students for widening their knowledge of the various topics, this book is not formally adopted as textbooks nor followed in a detailed way].

Teaching methods

The lessons and solution of exercises in class, according to the official timetable.

Assessment methods

The final examination is oral. The exam is aimed at assessing the understanding of the fundamental principles of the technologies included in the course program. Moreover, the capability to identify the most suitable operating mode of specific operations and to critically discuss major characteristics of the equipment working conditions and scale-up criteria will be verified.

Teaching tools

Video projector, blackboard.

Office hours

See the website of Federico Alberini