93639 - Architectural Representation Studio T-1

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

Aim of the course is to get graphic maturity in the use of the technical drawing and representation language, educating the student to the use of the opportune graphic tools and the development of the three-dimensional vision of the civil forms.

Course contents


1. Course introduction, course objectives, organization, methods and evaluation, the tools for drawing.

2. Freehand drawing for the design: drawing from the truth; notebook sketches; graphical analysis and conceptual drawing.

Applications of freehand drawing for graphical analysis and the design process.

3. Basics of surveying - Survey sketches and final drawings; measure unit.

4. Orthographic projection: introduction to descriptive geometry; the method of orthogonal projections; point, line and plane representation; specific problems solutions (position, alignment, inclusion, etc.); rotations; multiview orthographic projection; the technical representation of the project; graphics applications.

5. Conventions graphics and tools for technical drawing: UNI norms, the historical evolution of the processes of standardization and unification; national and international standards committee (UNI, CEN, ISO); UNI standards for technical drawing; treatment of sections (hatches and conventions); designation systems of buildings (UNI-ISO 4157).

Systems and conventions for drawings dimensioning: general principles of dimensioning; the dimensioning systems; series, parallel and progressive dimensioning; general and specific criteria for dimensioning of technical drawings; dimensioning of views, plans and elevations.

Technical drawings for the project: technical representation of the project, European method: views, plans, sections, elevations; applications; scales of representation; construction details; the representation of the elements of the green and the landscape; drawings for building permission; architecture competitions drawings.

6. Axonometric projections: general information; isometric model construction; orthogonal axonometric; oblique axonometric; applications; cutaways and exploded axonometric.

7. Perspective: projecting plans method; measuring points method; vanishing point method; lines of maximum slope; central perspective; applications; the perspective of the buildings.

8. Drawings of structures.

Wood structures: UNI -ISO standards for structures of wood representation; trusses drawing; UNI 7619; analysis, development, articulation and representation of the nodes; examples.

Steel structures: UNI -ISO standards for structures of steel representation; steel trusses; UNI 7619; analysis, development, articulation and representation of the nodes; examples.

Concrete structures: UNI -ISO standards for the representation of structures of reinforced concrete; examples.

9. Vertical links and stairs: analysis and visualization of stairs and elevators; the elements of a stair; stair geometric classification; dimensional elements; ramps; ruled helicoids closed and open; spiral staircases; stairs design; examples.

10. Roofs: types of roofs; shape of roofs; general characteristics of roofs flat and sloped; reference terminology (UNI 8091); design and representation; applications on various conformations of plan; parts of roofs; examples.


- Description of cameras and operating principles.

- Light sources, lighting techniques.

- Camera use and lighting, shooting simple objects.

- Geometric Distortion and perspective in photography.

- Relationship between photography and architecture: theory and practice.


1. Knowledge of security policy to be adopted to minimize the risks related to the use of hand tools and machines.

2. Methods and techniques to design and build a model of architecture to be realized manually: tools and instrument to be use; materials; modeling techniques.

3. Practical construction of models both in the classroom and at home, which will put into practice the concepts learned.


Recommended books:

. M.Docci, D.Maestri, M.Gaiani, Scienza del disegno, CittàStudi, Novara, 2017 - https://www.pandoracampus.it/

. R.Migliari, Geometria descrittiva, CittàStudi, Novara, 2009

. N.Crowe, P.Laseau, Visual Notes for architects and designers, New York, 1984

. Ente nazionale italiano di unificazione, M1 (voll. 1, 2, 3)

All the material of the course (calendar, test results, possible teaching material, etc.) will be uploaded to IOL (https://iol.unibo.it/)

Teaching methods


Exercises consists of a series of individual activities threefold:

I. a series of exercises in the classroom from work patterns assigned by the teacher to achieve on A3 paper sheet.

II. a series of drawings to make yourself that focus the student's ability to apply the concepts learned on a subject of your choice from a common theme assigned. Drawings will be done using A2 format paper sheet.

III. notebook sketches (paper with no white or yellow stripes or squares, with spiral binding and hard cover, format A4 size )

Delivery mode:

I - classroom exercises: at the end of each test. These exercises can also be carried out at home and delivered and discussed on the day of the exam.

II - autonomous exercises: in date notified by the teacher.

III - notebook sketches: at examination.


To complete theory lessons, activities are planned in the lab, aimed at the acquisition of basic techniques of shooting, and outdoor shooting of architectural subjects.


The course will be divided into a few lectures in the classroom in which you explain the objectives of the module, some theoretical aspects of the topics covered, the security policy to be adopted during the use of instruments, and an overview of the technologies available.

Then the activity will take place in the lab and finally the students will visit the models lab and will be able to get in touch with the most advanced tools.

Responsible of all the modules is the professor

Assessment methods

Verification of learning takes place through the final exam only, which ensures the acquisition of all the knowledge and skills expected. The examination is composed of written session, which consist of a test, duration 2/4 hours, composed of questions usually refer to the course contents and /or an oral test concerning the methodologies learned during the course and a discussion on the documents produced during the year.

The exam consists of:

A. Practical tests of drawing, photography, modeling.

B. Oral exam to discuss the tests carried out during the A.Y. and the theoretical topics reported on the reference text

To be able to take the exam, it is strongly recommended that you deliver the "final assignment work" and related progress on the dates indicated during the year. These are in fact intended as a laboratory activity and as such no revision is expected after the end of the lessons. In case of non-delivery, the student will also be able to take the exam, but the verification of the exercise will be the first scheduled task and, in the event of insufficient assessment, the exam will be automatically deemed to have taken a negative result. In addition, the student will be provided with all the reasons for the failure to promote but no indication of how the papers are developed.

On the exam date, the following must be delivered:

a - sketchbook;

b - exercises during the year of all three teaching modules.

To take the exam, registration via Almaesami is required, in compliance with the established deadlines.

Graphic tests, practices and oral interview must be taken in the same exam session.

Classroom laboratory tests will be considered passed for the examination only within the last appeal of the A.Y. 2021-2022. In the event of taking the exam on a later date, it will have to be carried out again in accordance with the new indications for the academic year 2022-2023.

The assessment is graded based on the student's ability to exhibit and put into practice the expected knowledge. The complete lack of competence will result in the exam not being passed.

The final grade is the result of an average of the written/graphic test and the evaluation of the boards handed in during the year.

To obtain a passing grade, students are required to at least demonstrate a knowledge of the key concepts of the subject, some ability for critical application, and a comprehensible use of technical language. Higher grades will be awarded to students who demonstrate an organic understanding of the subject, a high ability for critical application, and a clear and concise presentation of the contents.

Teaching tools


A sketchbook will be used during the course and studio activities; teacher will request specific graphic assignments on the sketchbook. The sketchbook will be used to record visual notes, improve free hand techniques and practices drawing in a free way of expression; it's fundamental self-training tool too.
For the lab activities students are requested to bring their own drawing supplies and a series of UNI A3 sheets. Specifications on drawing instruments will be done during the lessons.

All tables must submit according to the model that will be provided.


To complete the hours of theory, activities are planned in the lab, aimed at the acquisition of basic techniques of shooting, and outdoor shooting of architectural subjects. For them, the student is asked that use his own SLR camera. If not owned, it's possible to use some cameras of the Department of Architecture.


The module includes lab work. Students must have of personal protective equipment: gloves, masks, goggles; and modeling instruments: cutter, rows teams scissors, glue. Students will also have to obtain the raw material for the production of models: cardboard, balsa wood, foam, glue, etc. according to the instructions that will be provided in class.

Office hours

See the website of Cristiana Bartolomei

See the website of Caterina Morganti