# 15626 - Aircraft on-board systems

### Course Unit Page

• Teacher Paolo Tortora

• Learning modules Dario Modenini (Modulo 2)
Paolo Tortora (Modulo 1)

• Credits 9

• SSD ING-IND/05

• Teaching Mode Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)

• Language Italian

• Campus of Forli

• Degree Programme First cycle degree programme (L) in Aerospace Engineering (cod. 9234)

• Course Timetable from Sep 20, 2021 to Dec 20, 2021

Course Timetable from Sep 17, 2021 to Dec 10, 2021

### SDGs

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

## Learning outcomes

In the three-years Bachelor Degree in Aerospace Engineering, this course is aimed at providing students with the knowledge of all aircraft on-board systems. In all aircraft, a certain number of on-board systems is present, and their relevance is demonstrated by the relative percentage of weight and cost they have on the entire aircraft. It is supposed that students possess the ability to face complex mathematical problems, to size simple aerospace subsystems by means of approximated formulas, to convert between different units and to solve three-dimensional geometric problems.

## Course contents

1. GENERAL REMARKS

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Design Phylosophy

1.3 Functional Schemes

1.4 Components Selection

1.5 Working Principles Analysis

1.6 Reliability

1.7 Standards for use and maintenance

2. PLANTS FOR ENERGY TRANSFER

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Energy use on board

2.3 Transfer of mechanical energy

2.4 Design of equipments for power distribution

3. OVERVIEW OF MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Main characteristics of hydraulic fluids

3.3 Equation of state and compressibility module

3.4 Form effective compressibility

3.5 Hydrostatic: Pascal's Principle

3.6 Continuity equation

3.7 Energy conservation

3.8 Steady Motion of an incompressible fluid

3.9 Fluid at rest

3.10 Pressure drop distribution

3.11 Discrete Components

3.12 Electrical Analogy

4. HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Generalities on Hydraulic Systems

4.3 Hydraulic Pumps

4.4 Regulation

4.5 Valves

4.6 Servo

4.7 Jacks

4.8 Engines

4.9 Accumulators

4:10 Tanks

4.11 Filters

4.12 Seals and hoses

5. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Types of power

5.3 Choice of plant

5.4 Energy Generation

5.5 Energy Distribution

5.6 Organs of protection and maneuver

5.7 Electric Motors

5.8 Accumulators

6. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Generation

6.3 Regulation

6.4 Actuators

7. FUEL SYSTEM

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Tanks location

7.3 Types of tanks

7.4 Supply

7.5 Internal architecture of shells

7.6 Fuel Measurement Systems

7.7 Distribution Network

7.8 Plant Sizing

8. PRESSURIZATION AND CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Comfort Conditions

8.3 Pressurization

8.4 Conditioning

8.5 Joules Reverse Cycle

8.6 Bootstrap Cycle

8.7 Steam Cycle

8.8 Distribution

8.9 Auxiliary plant for oxygen

9. ANTI-ICING PLANT

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Mechanism of Formation of ice

9.3 Calculation Method

9.4 Effect of ice formation

9.5 Systems for the prevention of ice formation

9.6 Systems for the removal of the ice

10. LANDING GEAR

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Landing Gear Configurations

10.3 Retraction and Extraction

10.4 Shock

10.5 Brakes

10.6 Anti-skid Systems

10.7 Tires

10.8 Wheels

11. EMERGENCY SYSTEMS

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Alarm Systems

11.3 Fire Systems

11.4 Inhibition of explosion of shells

11.5 Emergency Oxygen

11.6 Renewable energy emergency

11.7 Evacuation of passengers

11.8 Crew Evacuation

11.9 Crash recorder

12. FLIGHT CONTROLS

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Bar Commands

12.3 Cable Controls

12.4 Servo

12.5 Fly-By-Wire

13. ON BOARD INSTRUMENTS

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Magnetic compass

13.3 Pressure Tools

13.3.1 Altimeter

13.3.2 Variometer

13.3.3. Anemometer

13.4 Gyroscopic Instruments

13.4.1 Introduction on gyroscopes

13.4.2 Artificial Horizon

13.4.3 Turn Indicator

13.4.4 Directional Gyro

13.4.5 Gyrocompass

14. AVIONICS

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Communications

14.2.1 Electromagnetic Field

14.2.2 Components of a communication system

14.2.3 Modulated carrier

14.5.2 VOR and DME

14.5.3 TACAN

14.5.4 Hyperbolic systems

14.5.5 GPS and DGPS

14.5.6 ILS

14.5.7 MLS

14.5.8 Altimeters

L. Puccinelli, P. Astori, Dispense del corso di Impianti Aerospaziali, Aggiornamento del 2013, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Aerospaziali, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (in Italian)

alternatively:

Aircraft Systems by David A. Lombardo. McGraw-Hill. 1999

## Teaching methods

Lectures are held by the course teacher. In lecturing hours it is proceeded to the exposure of the arguments, to the explicit demonstration of all mathematical formulas introduced and to the presentation of the methods to solve the problems given in the practicing hours. The proposed exercises require the use of pocket calculators for the solution of the mathematical end engineering problems given by the lecturer.

## Assessment methods

The examination has a written and an oral part. The written part constists of two questions related the description of aircraft systems and one relative to the sizing of an aircraft on-board system. Student must reach at least a mark of 5/10 in all questions, and proficiently answer at least two out of the three questions to access the oral part of the examination. Students desiring to access the oral part will be asked a (short) theoretical questions about the subjects explained during the course. In the course of the examination the ability to the student to resolve new problems or at least to set up the correct resolutive strategy will be assessed. The assessment of such ability has a fundamental weight in the attribution of the final marks.

## Teaching tools

LCD projector and PC are used in addition to the standard blackboard.

## Office hours

See the website of Paolo Tortora

See the website of Dario Modenini