38809 - The Paradigms of Addictions

Course Unit Page

  • Teacher Raimondo Maria Pavarin

  • Credits 8

  • SSD SPS/08

  • Teaching Mode Traditional lectures

  • Language Italian

  • Campus of Bologna

  • Degree Programme Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Planning and managing of educational intervention in social distress (cod. 9228)

  • Teaching resources on Virtuale


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being Reduced inequalities

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the student:

· Will know the time evolution - of the different representations of the addicted subject and paradigms of reference;

· Will know the nows the theory of normalization and patterns of consumption of marginal consumers and socially integrated ones;

· Will Know the use of psychoactive substances in the minors people and phenomenology of cannabis, cocaine, and alcohol;

· Will Be able to apply this knowledge in prevention projects.

Course contents


The course will offer insights from research activities related to:

1) Substance use during the COVID-19 lockdown, 2) Problematic substance use during the COVID-19 period; 3) Addiction services and innovative methodologies during the COVID-19 lockdown; 4) Synthetic opioids and fentanyl, 5) Overdose death risk and early warning systems, 6) Cannabis social market (social supply), 7) Cannabis self production; 8) the phenomenology of ketamine, 9) the Purple Drank; 10) Suicide and problematic substance use; 11) Stigma and socially integrated substance use.

Students will be provided with study material

Course contents

Introduction - COVID-19 and substance use: changes for drug addiction services and for substance users.
One - The evolution of the theoretical framework
1 - Introduction to sociological theories of culture, fashion, deviance, stigma, risk, normalization, social integration, illness and disease
2 - Deviance, pleasure and labeling
3 - The social meaning of substance use and its subculture
4 - The hedonists in the nineties
5- The thesis of normalization
6 - Zimberg and controlled consumption
7 - Marginal and socially integrated substance users
8 - Stigma and socially integrated substance use

Two - The Italian situation
1 - The evolution of the phenomenon in Italy
2 - Phenomenology of alcohol
3 - Phenomenology of cocaine
4 - Phenomenology of cannabis
5 - Phenomenology of heroin
6 - Opium
7 - Ketamine
8 - The Purple Drank

Three - New targets of consumption
1 - Minors and substance use
2 - Not natives and second generation of migrants
3 -Women and substance use

Four- New trends
1 - Goods and market
2 - Drug use and economic recession
3 - Cannabis social supply
4 - Socially integrated substance users
5 - The problematic use of illegal substances
6 - The process of alcohol deculturalization
7- Mortality risk for substance users: early warning systems
8 - Synthetic Opioids and Fentanyl
9 - Substance use and suicide risk

Five - Addiction without substances
1 - Gambling
2 - Compulsive shopping
3 - Internet addiction

Six - Research techniques and prevention projects
The use of research in the design of prevention activities
Qauntitative - Research methods and techniques to study the use of psychoactive substances.
Qualitative - Focus group and Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
TEST (SDS, DAST 10, CAGE, Fagerstrom, Fisher, Compulsive Buyng).

Attending students will be offered participation in research activities


In addition to the texts/papers indicated, students will be provided with study material


Book - “Il consumo socialmente integrato di sostanze illegali: danni, precauzioni, regole e mercato” – di Pavarin RM - Francoangeli Milano marzo 2014

Book - “Dal deviante clandestino al consumatore socialmente integrato. L'evoluzione della ricerca sull'uso delle sostanze psicoattive” di Pavarin RM CLUEB Bologna marzo 2012

Book - “Dipendenze con e senza sostanze. Teoria, ricerca e modelli di intervento” a cura di Pavarin RM & Daniele Corbetta Francoangeli Milano dicembre 2015 (a chapter of your choice).

Scientific paper - " Io non sono uno spacciatore: io sono un consumatore, aiuto gli amici. Una ricerca qualitativa con interviste a venditori di cannabis non professionisti” Pavarin R M (2021). PROSPETTIVE SOCIALI E SANITARIE, vol. 3, p. 42-45


Scientific paper - "Gioco problematico: evidenze empiriche e riflessioni per la prevenzione" - Prisma (2018) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323336451_Gioco_problematico_evidenze_empiriche_e_riflessioni_per_la_prevenzione

Scientific paper - "Crisi economica, consumo socialmente integrato e riduzione del danno: nuove idee per la prevenzione" Salute e società (2016) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/300001846_Crisi_economica_consumo_socialmente_integrato_e_riduzione_del_danno_Nuove_idee_per_la_prevenzione

Scientific paper - "Heavy episodic drinking: I risultati preliminari del progetto ALLCOOL" Alcologia (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322307242_Heavy_episodic_drinking_I_risultati_preliminari_del_progetto_ALLCOOL

Recommended reading

Scientific paper - Pavarin, R. M. et al (2021), Substance consumption styles during the COVID-19 lockdown for socially integrated people who use drugs, JOURNAL OF SUBSTANCE USE https://www.researchgate.net/publication/351369707_Substance_consumption_styles_during_the_COVID-19_lockdown_for_socially_integrated_people_who_use_drugs

Scientific paper - Pavarin R. et al (2020). Differences between subjects with socially integrated drug use: a study in Italy and Portugal. JOURNAL OF SUBSTANCE USE, vol. 25, p. 449-455 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339901058_Differences_between_subjects_with_socially_integrated_drug_use_a_study_in_Italy_and_Portugal

Scientific paper - Pavarin R. et al, (2020). Mortality Risk among Cocaine Users before and after the Economic Recession:Results of a Longitudinal Study. EUROPEAN ADDICTION RESEARCH, vol. 26, p. 10-19


Scientific paper - Pavarin R. et al, (2019). Visits of adolescents for acute alcohol intoxication to emergency departments in Northern Italy: natives and non-natives. JOURNAL OF SUBSTANCE USE, vol. 25, p. 118-122


Articolo scientifico - Pavarin R (2016). First consumers, then socially integrated: results of a study on 100 Italian drug users who had never turned to public or private addiction services. SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE, vol. 51, p. 892-901


Scientific paper - Pavarin R. et al, L (2016). Risky consumption, reasons for use, migratory status and normalization: the results of an Italian study on minors aged between 13 and 16. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MIGRATION, HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE, vol. 12, p. 1-14



Teaching methods


Research activities

Assessment methods

The assestment onsists of an interview and aims to verify the achievement of the following learning objectives:

In-depth knowledge of information and theoretical approaches mentioned in the program

Ability to use these approaches and information to analyze the evolution of the phenomenon

Ability to interpret the phenomenon under study.

Ability to apply this knowledge in prevention projects.

The examination was held in the form of oral and provides an assessment of thirty. To support the exam registration is required via bulletin board, in compliance with mandatory deadlines.

Teaching tools

Material: the material presented in class will be made available to the student in electronic format via the Internet.

Such material should be printed and brought to class.

To get educational materials: http://campus.unibo.it/

Username and password are reserved for students enrolled at the University of Bologna.

Links to further information


Office hours

See the website of Raimondo Maria Pavarin