84923 - Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy II

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being Quality education Gender equality Industry, innovation and infrastructure

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student knows the main molecular mechanisms and the pharmacodynamic and therapeutic profile of the drugs active on the central nervous system, on the renal and cardiovascular functions, on the respiratory and gastro-intestinal functions, on inflammation and the immune system, on blood cells and on the coagulation and aggregation of platelets, minerals and vitamins. She/he knows the drugs that influence endocrine functions and is is able to evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs and their ability to prevent or to treat certain diseases or alleviate their symptoms. The student knows the main drug adverse effects and side effects that may limit their use and is capable of recognizing drug interactions. The student applies the knowledge learned for the performance of the profession, for the correct storage and dispensing of drugs, to inform and educate on the use of medicines and has the knowledge that allows her/him to report adverse drug reactions. Finally, the student applies the knowledge learned for the performance of the profession, for the correct storage and dispensing of medicines, to inform and educate people to the correct use of medicines and to monitor the management of appropriateness in the use of medicines and the continuity of adherence to drug therapy in chronic therapies.

Course contents

MODULE I - Teacher: Santi Mario Spampinato

Cardiovascular and renal system:

Drugs for the treatment of cardiac insufficiency and myocardial ischemia

Antiarrhythmic drugs

Drugs acting on the Renin and angiotensin system

Antihypertensive agents and the drug therapy of hypertension


Anticoagulant – Thrombolytic – Antiplatelet – Antifribinolytic drugs

Drugs acting at Central nervous system level:

Anatomy and general functions of the central nervous system

General Anesthetics

Drugs effective in the therapy of the epilepsies

Drugs for Parkinson disease

Drugs used in the treatment of psychoses

Treatment of depressive disorders

Opioids: agonists and antagonists

Treatment of the anxiety disorders

Treatment of central nervous system degenerative disorders

Drugs of abuse

MODULE II - Teacher: Andrea Bedini

Immune system and inflammation:

Histamine, bradykinin and their antagonists

Lipid-derived autacoids: eicosanoids e PAF

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs


Immunosuppressive agents and immunostimulants

Drugs acting on the blood:

Hematopoietic agents

Drugs used in the treatment of anemia

Drugs capable to modify plasmatic lipid levels

Drugs acting on the bronchial function:

Bronchodilatators and other agents used in the treatment of asthma

Antitussive agents and mucolitics

Drugs affecting gastrointestinal function:

Agents used for control of gastric acidity and treatment of peptic ulcers

Agents used for diarrhea – constipation – Antiemetics and prokinetic agents

Hormones and hormone antagonists

Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones

Estrogens, progestins, androgens and their antagonists

Pancreatic hormones – oral hypoglycemic agents

Agents affecting calcification and bone turnover

Thyroid and antithyroid drugs


Stefano Govoni, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Adele Lucchelli, Pierluigi Navarra, Marco Racchi, Francesco Scaglione, Santi Mario Spampinato. Farmacologia con sito web. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2014.

Textbook to be used for further information

Goodman & Gilman. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics.

Authors: Laurence L. Brunton, Randa Hilal-Dandan, Bjorn C. Knollmann

13th Edition 2018. MacGraw-Hill Education.

Teaching methods

Lessons with educational material available for students on online teaching

Assessment methods

Students attending lessons can take an optional intermediate test during the first semester (early December) lasting 60 minutes. The test concerns drugs acting on the cardiovascular and renal system. The intermediate test includes 4 open questions. The minimum rating to pass the test is the "just enough" rating. The mark obtained in the intermediate test (December) allows to take the final written exam, without answering the topics covered by the test, by December 30 of the following year.

Registration for the intermediate and final written exam through Almaesami.

The final exam takes place in two stages: a written test, lasting 100 min and an oral one. The written test consists of 10 open  questions on drugs of the endocrine system (hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, oral contraceptives, androgens, estrogens and progestogens, drugs for diabetes mellitus, drugs active on thyroid functions, drugs active on bone mineral homeostasis) and open questions on the following topics: anatomical-functional organization of the central nervous system; General anesthetics; antiepileptic; Pharmacological treatment of movement disorders; Antipsychotics; Antidepressants; Opioids agonists and antagonists; Pharmacological treatment of anxiety and sleep disturbances; Pharmacological treatment of neurodegenerative diseases; Abuse substances; Drugs for the treatment of heart failure and ischemic heart disease; antiarrhythmics; The renin-angiotensin system; Pharmacological control of arterial hypertension; Diuretics; Histamine, bradykinin and their antagonists; Autacoids derived from phospholipids: eicosanoids and PAF; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories; Glucocorticoids; Immunosuppressants and immunostimulants; Hematopoietic agents; anticoagulants; thrombolysis; antiplatelet agents; Antifribinolytics; Medications for the treatment of anemias; Drugs capable of changing the structure of plasma lipids; Medicines active on bronchial functions; Bronchodilators and other agents used in asthma; Antitussive drugs; Drugs for acid-peptide diseases; antidiarrhoeals; Laxatives; Antiemetics and pro-kinetics.

The written exam is given an evaluation (form just sufficient to excellent). The minimum mark for admission to the oral exam is just sufficient.

Those who pass the written test must take the oral test on the date indicated. This consists in the presentation of four topics taken from different sections of the program covered by the written exam. Whoever takes the written exam within the terms of validity of the passed intermediate test does not answer questions concerning the arguments of the test taken. The outcome of the written test conditions admission to the oral exam. For the oral exam, show up on the day and at the established time. This information, together with the outcome of the written test, will be placed on the Professor's website.

In case of failure of the oral exam, the student must face again the final written exam in a subsequent appeal.

The final mark of the entire course is calculated as the weighted average of the marks reported in the intermediate test (if taken and still valid at the time of the oral exam), in the final written exam and in the oral exam. The weighted average takes into account the relationship between credits (CFU) attributed to the subjects covered by the intermediate test and the hours of lessons dedicated to those topics.

Teaching tools

Video projector - PC system - connection to specific websites. The slides presented in class are made available to the students in electronic format on the online teaching site. For access, username and password are reserved for students enrolled at the University of Bologna.

Office hours

See the website of Santi Mario Spampinato

See the website of Andrea Bedini