76047 - General Pathology

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

No poverty Good health and well-being Quality education Partnerships for the goals

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

The student, at the end of the course is able to understand the underlying causes and pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases, as well as the etiology of the alterations of the fundamental structures, functions and control mechanisms at various levels of integration. The student knows the principles and also the biological basis underpinning the operation and regulation of the pathophysiology of impaired response in major diseases.

Course contents

Aim of the course
Concept of disease, etiology and pathogenesis


Cellular adaptations

Metaplasia and dysplasia

Cell jnjury

Etiopathogenesis of cellular damage
Vacuolar degeneration

Cell death

Apoptosis: etiopathogenesis
Apoptosis: morphological alterations
Necrosis: etiopathogenesis
Necrosis: morphological alterations and classification


Acute inflammation

General characteristics
Vascular phenomena
Exudative oedema
Cell phenomena
Chemical mediators: plasma proteases
Chemical mediators: cellular products
Classification of acute inflammations
Outcomes and systemic effects

Chronic inflammation

Chronicization of acute forms
Granulomatous forms
Etiopathogenesis of the tuberculous disease
Outcomes and consequences of tuberculosis


Granulation tissue
Wound healing


Pathophysiology of haemostasis

Pathophysiology of endothelial cells
Pathophysiology of primary hemostasis
Pathophysiology of secondary hemostasis
Etiopathogenesis of disseminated intravascular coagulation

Pathophysiology of vessels and circulation

Classification of arteriosclerosis
Risk factors of atherosclerosis
Pathogenesis of atheroma
Consequences of atherosclerosis
Etiopathogenesis of thrombosis
Classification of thrombosis
Etiology and classification of the emboli
Pathogenesis and consequences of embolism
Etiopathogenesis of the infarction
Etiopathogenesis of transudative edema
Localized and generalized transudative edema


M. Parola – Patologia Generale ed Elementi di fisiopatologia - Casa Editrice EdiSES (II Edizione - 2020)

G.M. Pontieri - Patologia Generale & Fisiopatologia Generale - Casa Editrice Piccin (IV Ed. 2018)

G.M. Pontieri – Elementi di Patologia Generale - Casa Editrice Piccin (IV Ed. 2018)

Emanuel Rubin, Howard M. Reisner - Principles of Rubin's Pathology 7° Edition - Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Editors



Teaching methods

The course includes 24 hours of lessons on cellular pathology, inflammatory-reparative responses, and the physiopathology of blood vessels and hemostasis.

Assessment methods

The learning level will be assessed at the end of classes. The evaluation of the learning will be carried out through a single exam for the whole Integrated Course of Pathology. The exam will be oral and will consist of three questions, one for each subject of the Integrated Course, asked by three different members of the Exam Board.

The exam of General Pathology aims to evaluate the knowledge acquired by the student on the course contents in order to achieve the educational goals. The exam assesses the student ability to frame the topic of general pathology or pathophysiology on which they are questioned and to expose it by making the necessary logical-deductive connections. The coherence of the conceptual succession and the appropriateness of the scientific language are further elements of evaluation.

Graduation of the final grade

18-20: knowledge of the basic concepts without serious gaps. Exposition of concepts and language as a whole acceptable.

21-25: knowledge of the basic concepts without gaps. Ability to analyze and link in partial autonomy. Exposure of discrete concepts and language.

26-29: preparation of good or very good level or even excellent preparation but with inaccuracies in the presentation that compromise the achievement of full marks. Ability to analyze and link independently. Exposure of concepts in the right succession and mastery of the language.

30-30L: full preparation, consolidated and without inaccuracies on the topics covered in the course. Ability to promptly frame the topic. Ability to analyze and connect independently. Concepts in the right succession and full command of the specific language.

The final grade derives from the collegial evaluation carried out by the teachers who examined the student.

Teaching tools

The teaching room has a PC, a projector and an Internet connection. The teaching material is available on line at https://virtuale.unibo.it/

The slides are in two different formats: "Diapo”, for computer vision, and "Stampati", for black and white prints to be integrated with lecture notes.

Links to further information


Office hours

See the website of Andrea Bolognesi