31866 - Extraction of Phyto-derivatives II

Course Unit Page

SDGs

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the students acquire the theoretical preparation for the development of strategies for extracting pure phytochemicals.The student is able to assess the quality of herbal products through laboratory activities.

Course contents

Drying of solids and apparatus. Drying of liquids or of solutions of organic compounds in organic solvents: drying agents. Solvents. Distillation. Steam distillation. Fractional distillation at atmospheric and diminished pressure. Molecular distillation. Sublimation. Purification by crystallization of natural products with low molecular weight. Silica gel column chromatography: flash chromatography. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, PHWE). Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE, Naviglio Estrattore). Maceration, infusion, decoction, percolation. Essential oils. Tinctures. Types of extracts: fluid, springs, dry. Sustainable extraction of phytochemicals, nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds from biomass and waste. Laboratory experiments: purification of terpenes: camphor from aerial parts of Cinnamomum camphora; - extraction and purification of salicylic acid from bark of Salix alba;- extraction of chlorophyll from the leaves of Spinacea oleracea; - extraction of alkaloids from Piper nigrum (fructis); - Checking for possible adulteration in two dried herbal drugs and in a herbal product: Calendula officinalis, Arnica montana, standard di Boiron; - extraction of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng; - steam distillation of eugenol contained in Eugenia caryophyllata and of cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamomum zeylanicum, - extraction of anthraquinones in Rhamnus purshianae; - separation of hesperidin from orange peel with Soxhlet apparatus. - isolation of lycopene from tomato waste.

Readings/Bibliography

1) Vogel. Chimica Organica Pratica. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Seconda Edizione, Milano 1988

2) R. M. Roberts, J.C. Gilbert, S. F. Martin. Chimica Organica Sperimentale. Zanichelli, Bologna 2003

3) A.J. Handely. Extraction Methods In Organic Analysis. Sheffield Academic Press, Canada 1999

4) D.L. Pavia, G. M. Lampman, G.S. Kriz. Il Laboratorio Di Chimica Organica, Edizioni Sorbona , Milano 1994

5) P.M. Dewick. Chimica, Biosintesi E Bioattivita' Delle Sostanze Naturali. Piccin, Padova 2000

6) Marco D'ischia La Chimica Organica In Laboratorio Piccin Padova 2002

7) Paul H. List, Peter C. Scmidt I Farmaci Di Origine Vegetale Tecnologie Di Estrazione Delle Piante Medicinali, Hoepli 1993

8) Natural Product Isolation: An Overview Book Series Methods in Biotechnology, ISSN 1940-6061 (Print) 1940-607X (Online) Volume Volume 20 Edition Second Edition

9) Slides and lecture notes, selected references will be provided during the class

Teaching methods

The course will be supported by laboratory exercises. The laboratory exercises will be individual and will aim to provide each student the opportunity to apply the various methods of preparing extracts of herbal drugs outlined in theoretical form during lectures.

Assessment methods

The exam will consist in an oral discussion aimed at assessing students' understanding of the subjects presented during lectures, involving the comment of a laboratory experience among those developed during laboratory activities, followed by two questions on general topics.

Teaching tools

Videoprojector, pc, laboratory

Office hours

See the website of Elisa Uliassi