65958 - Ornamental Plants Diseases And Phytoiatry

Course Unit Page

  • Teacher Maria Grazia Bellardi

  • Learning modules Maria Grazia Bellardi (Modulo Mod 1)
    Antonio Prodi (Modulo Mod 2)

  • Credits 6

  • SSD AGR/12

  • Teaching Mode Traditional lectures (Modulo Mod 1)
    Traditional lectures (Modulo Mod 2)

  • Language Italian

  • Campus of Bologna

  • Degree Programme First cycle degree programme (L) in Ornamental plants and landscape protection (cod. 8523)

  • Teaching resources on Virtuale

  • Course Timetable from Feb 23, 2022 to May 12, 2022

    Course Timetable from Mar 31, 2022 to May 19, 2022


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being Sustainable cities

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

After teaching the student acquires basic knowledge on the biology and epidemiology of infectious diseases (from fungi, bacteria, viruses, phytoplasmas) and abiotic of ornamentals, and is therefore able to assess the dangers depending on the presence and spread within production and use. In addition to symptom-based visual recognition, the student possesses sufficient knowledge on prophylaxis to be taken to prevent the emergence and spread in addition to recognition as well as the current overall phytosanitary defence with regard to various aspects (technical, legal, organisational, toxicological). After teaching the student is therefore able to relate critically to the current needs of the ornamental plant protection also historical and cultural.

Course contents


A) Prerequisites:

The student who accesses this teaching is in possession of a good preparation in the fundamentals of plant physiology and the plant cell and constitution of its operation. Such knowledge and skills are acquired during the teachings laid down in the first and second year. The student knows the English language, English being a part of the proposed teaching material and delivered in the course of the lessons, in particular some scientific articles (the same items but also in Italian language).

B) Teaching units

1) General part (total unit No. 1: 6 hours)

Aim of the course-definition and responsibilities of plant pathology under the ornamental plants-concept of disease, etiology-Symptoms and Visual Diagnosis – history of plant pathology. Parasitism forced and not forced.

Knowledge gained in unit 1

• Knowledge of the flower market-general nature at national and international level (globalization)

• Knowledge of ornamental sector have economic (production and marketing)

• Knowledge of the variability of the ornamental sector to the needs of the consumer

• Knowledge of the inability to intervene with the genetic improvement to create cvs resistant or tolerant

2) Biotic and Abiotic Diseases (total unit No. 2: 19 hours)

  • Biotic and abiotic diseases.

1. Abiotic : thermal Imbalances. Water imbalances. Bright imbalances. Nutritional imbalances and phytotoxic pollutant. Damage from pesticides and herbicides. Damage from air pollution (sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide, sulfuric acid, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine silicate fluoride, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, salt, various Oxidants).

2. Bacterial diseases: General information, taxonomy, distribution and transmission; fight. Main bacterial diseases of ornamental plants.

3. Phytoplasma diseases: General information, taxonomy; relations with the host plant, symptoms, diagnosis, prophylaxis. Major phytoplasma diseases of ornamental plants.

4. Fungal diseases: General information, parasitism and saprofitism, structures of the fungus, sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction, broadcast environment. Ascomycetes (powdery mildew, scab, gray mold, the colorful platano cancer). Basidiomycetes (radical rottenness, decay of wood, rust). Rhinocladiella, their synonymy (tracheomicosi, foliar speckled). Mastigomiceti (pythium).

5. Viral diseases: virus definition, morphology, taxonomy, virus-plant relations, symptomatic aspects, diagnosis, dissemination, transmission and prophylaxis. Major viral disease on herbaceous and shrubby species. . Virus disease of houseplants (Araceae).Tospoviruses: General information, symptoms, transmission.

6. Essential oils. Secondary metabolism of plants and production of terpene substances for defense. Recent experiments that see the use of essential oils and hydrolates in agriculture for the defense of plants from adversity

7. Plant health issues related to plant marketing: addressed in a specific Seminar held annually by experts in "Plant health services" of the Emilia-Romagna Region (plant passports and other specific documentation attesting to the plant health status released by licensed laboratories). Infectious diseases in other countries on typical crops of different geographic areas from Italy; spreading risks related to propagation materials. "Insect" insects recently introduced in Italy (Multidisciplinary Seminar). This Seminar is then also taken up in the "Entomology" program. Alternatively: Seminar held by an external teacher on bacterial diseases of trees and shrubs, including: Xylella fastidiosa and oleander tumor disease.

 Knowledge gained in unit 2:

 Knowledge of the main causes of non-infectious diseases in Italy and in the world

 • Knowledge on major communicable diseases

 • Knowledge about the epidemiology of individual pathogens

 • Knowledge of the severity of infectious and non-infectious diseases

3) Disease Control (total unit No. 3: 20 hours)

 3.1 plant protection harmful organisms: framing of the problem and general aspects (technical, economical, environmental toxicology, regulatory, political, and organizational); the peculiarities of defence of ornamental plants from pests

 3.2 methods of plant protection harmful organisms, special focus on ornamental plants:

a. development and current guidelines,

b. the means of struggle: the general framework for the different areas of Defense, unwanted side aspects on non-target species and the environment

c. deepening of means and methods of combat: physical, genetic, agronomic, biological, chemical

d. integrated Defense: general aspects and peculiarities in different sectors, the new European regulatory scene

e. the national and European legislative framework, in particular the Directive on the sustainable use of plant protection products

f. plant protection italian organization

3.3. the main types of diseases of ornamental plants and their management practice: e.g., mildew, rusts, cancers, rottenness, decay and others deemed topical

Knowledge gained in unit 3:

• Knowledge of the overall framework of the issue of the defence of plants from adversity

• Knowledge of characteristics of natural defences and synthesis, including undesirable side aspects

• Knowledge of recent trends towards sustainable patterns of Defense relating to the various production systems (integrated and biological)

• Knowledge of the new European regulatory scenario and national defence and of pesticides

• Knowledge, in particular, strategies for defending against the major diseases of ornamental plants

Practical exercises in greenhouses and in the laboratory. Failure to attend exercises (in the greenhouse and at the laboratory) does not preclude passing the exam: those who can not attend must agree a substitute activity with the teacher.


Recommended texts:

- ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES (all available at "Scarabelli" and "Palazzo Vespignani")

- AVVERSITA' DELLE PIANTE ORNAMENTALI: VIROSI E FITOPLASMOSI (Ed. l'Informatore Agrario, Verona; 1998) (M.G.Bellardi-A.Bertaccini)

- MALATTIE E PARASSITI DELLE PIANTE DA FIORE, ORNAMENTALI E FORESTALI (Vol 1 e 2) (Ferrari, Menta, Marcon, Montermini) Edagricole, 1999.

- MALATTIE CRITTOGAMICHE DELLE PIANTE ORNAMENTALI (I. Ponti, L. Marchetti, F. Laffi, Ed. L'informatore agrario, Verona 2005)

- MALATTIE DELLE PIANTE ORNAMENTALI (A. Garibaldi, M. L. Gullino, Ed. Calderini-Edagricole, 2000)

- PRINCIPI DI FITOIATRIA (G. Lorenzini, C. Nali, Il Sole 24 ore Edagricole, 2012)


Teaching methods

Teaching methods the course is divided into two parts:

1) Front: a theory that is based on the projection of many pictures of diseases in order to train the student to the detection and identification of symptoms on the plants. In this way you can discuss and deal with many current issues, health issues of particular interest to the producers of the flower industry-ornamental.

2) Tutorials: the student actively participates in the activities of the greenhouse and outdoor inspections aimed at deepening from experimental point of view diagnosis. This part of teaching will also have to check the learning ability as well as the ability to critique and evaluation of individual diseases in view of interventions (preventive and/or chemical).

Assessment methods

As teaching "Diseases of ornamental plants and Control" (65958) part of the integrated course "Pathology and Entomology" (65957), the final evaluation takes into account jointly the level of knowledge and skills acquired by the student with regard to the contents of both the teachings.

The knowledge and skills imparted this teaching are assessed through the following modes:-"oral exam": it is an oral interview on three units that cannot be split into separate verification moments between them. The oral interview in fact wants to estimate the learning capacity and methodological criticism but also gained by the student. In particular, will be assessed the student's ability to "move" in the context of plant pathology and defence industries, as well as the achievement of a comprehensive vision of the themes discussed in class together to hold a fair mastery of expression indicating an adequate knowledge of the language (i.e., terminology of plant pathology, such as "name" of symptoms).

-There is also a practical test to identify a plant sample with symptoms and mechanical inoculation in greenhouses. The end-of-course examination is designed to assess the achievement of educational objectives.

Teaching tools

PC, video projector, publications

Office hours

See the website of Maria Grazia Bellardi

See the website of Antonio Prodi