00768 - General Pathology

Course Unit Page

  • Teacher Giuseppina Di Stefano

  • Credits 6

  • SSD MED/04

  • Teaching Mode Traditional lectures

  • Language Italian

  • Campus of Bologna

  • Degree Programme Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in School of Dentistry (cod. 8204)

  • Course Timetable from Oct 05, 2021 to Dec 17, 2021


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

Knowledge ofthe etiology and of the the pathogenetic mechanism of human diseases. Study of the morphological changes induced by diseases in tissues and of their functional consequences for the organism.

Course contents

Introduction to the study of General Pathology


The microcirculation and the Starling hypothesis; Fluid transudation and exudation; Pathogenesis of localized and generalized oedema.



Cells of inflammation; Chemical mediators of inflammation; Cardinal signs of inflammation; Phagocytosis and the bactericidal mechanism of leukocytes; Different types of exudate; Function of exudate; Features of chronic inflammation: granulation tissue, ulcers, abscesses, granulomas, fibrosis; Wound healing; Fever and other systemic effects of inflammation.



Antigens; Antigen receptors: antibodies, major histocompatibility complex, antigen receptor on T lymphocytes; Antigen processing and presentation to CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes; Maturation of lymphocytes; Genetics of antibodies; Activation of lymphocytes; Mechanisms of humoral immunity;  The complement system; Mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity; Immunopathologic reactions: anaphylaxis, antibody-mediated cytotoxicity, immune-complex diseases, delayed hypersensitivity; Immune tolerance and autoimmune diseases. Oral mucosa immunity.



Definition and nomenclature of tumours; Epidemiology of tumours; Genetic predisposition to neoplasm; Genetics of neoplasm: “caretaker” and “gatekeeper” oncosuppressor genes, oncogenes; Morphologic and biochemical features of tumour tissues; The process of carcinogenesis and the tumour growth; Tumour angiogenesis; Metastasis; Carcinogenic agents and their mechanism of action.



Atherosclerosis; Thrombosis; Embolism; Infarction and ischemia-reperfusion pathology; Oral mucosa infections and cardiovascular disease.


  •  Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas, Nelson Fausto

Robbins e Cotran. Le basi patologiche delle malattie PATOLOGIA GENERALE



  • V. Kumar, AK Abbas, JC Aster
Robbins - Fondamenti di Patologia e di Fisiopatologia



Immunology textbook:

  • Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H. Lichtman, Shiv Pillai

    Le basi dell'immunologia. Fisiopatologia del sistema immunitario


Teaching methods

The course consists of about 50 hours of lessons

Assessment methods

The final exam will be conducted orally and will aim to verify the achievement of educational objectives; more specifically, it will assess the student's knowledge of the basic mechanisms through which human diseases are generated. The student will be asked to discuss in depth two of the topics covered during the teaching course.

The final grade of the General Pathology course is the average of the grades obtained in the tests of General Pathology and Laboratory of General Pathology.

Teaching tools

Use of personal computer; slide showing.

Office hours

See the website of Giuseppina Di Stefano