54576 - Cytology and Histology (A-L)

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes


Course contents

Cell architecture. Comparison of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Viral reproduction and life cycle. Molecular composition of the cells. Organization of the plasma membrane. The glycocalix. The extracellular matrix. The cytoscheleton. Cilia and flagella. The rough endoplasmic reticulum. The ribosomes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi complex and cell secretion. The lysosomes and the endocytosis. The mitochondria. The nucleus. The nuclear envelope. The nuclear matrix. The chromatin. The nucleolus. The cell division cycle. The chromosomes. Centrioles and spindle apparatus. Mitotic and meiotic division. The cell differentiation. The epithelial tissue. Cytological characteristics of epithelial cells. Types of epithelial tissues. Development of glands. Cell secretion mode. Simple and compound exocrine glands. Endocrine glands and their hormone products. Hormone acting. Structure and function of liver. The connective tissue. The intercellular matrix. The cells of the loose and dense connective tissues. Adipose tissue. The cartilaginous and bone tissue. Intramembranous and intracartilagenous ossification. The blood. Blood plasma. Red blood corpuscles. Leucocytes. Blood platelets. Antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses.Hemopoiesis. Organization of the skeletal muscle. Myofibrils. Actin and myosin. The sarcoplasmatic reticulum. Muscular contraction. Smooth muscolar tissue. Cardiac muscolar tissue. Nervous tissue. Minute structure of the neuron.The nerve fiber and the myelin sheath. Forms and varieties of neurons. Conduction and transmission of the nerve impulse. Nerve terminations. Neuroglia, the interstitial tissue of the nervous system.


Dini et al. CITOLOGIA & ISTOLOGIA. III Edizione. Idelson-Gnocchi, 2021

Young, Lowe, Stevens, Heath. WHEATER ISTOLOGIA E ANATOMIA MICROSCOPICA. Elsevier, 2007

Teaching methods

Lectures and Lab practises

Assessment methods

The assessment will take place through a written examination for the identification of four animal samples, followed by an oral one with more general questions.

Teaching tools

Video projector, PC, microscopes

Office hours

See the website of Valeria Franceschini