88242 - Advanced Thermodynamics

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Affordable and clean energy

Academic Year 2020/2021

Learning outcomes

Knowledge about thermodynamic properties of fluids and materials and their use in phase equilibrium problems. Knowledge about the fundamentals of thermodynamic analysis for energy processes.

Course contents

  • Introduction / Course Overview and brief recall on basic thermodynamic background

    - basic thermodynamic quantities, Enthalpy, Internal Energy specific heat etc...

    - PVT Behavior of Pure Substances and Ideal Gas Law.

    - the First Law of Thermodynamics and on its use to solve simple thermodynamic problems.

    - Thermodynamic diagram, tables and data for the solution of simplet thermodynamic problems.

  • Second Law of Thermodynamics and its role in determining:

    - the constitutive equations for simple and complex fluids:

    General derivation Gibbs-Maxwell relationships starting from first and second laws of thermodynamics. Use of Gibbs-Maxwell relationships for the evaluation of thermodynamic properties.

    - the system evolution and stability of equilibrium conditions.

    Constraint for the liquid vapor equilibrium

    Model for the description of pure components: Cubic Equations of State, Generalized Correlations for Gases & Liquids and their use to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of pure substances and to solve simple thermodynamic problems

    - the constraints guiding the energy conversions:

    Ideal and Lost Work, Minimum work required/Maximum obtainable work; Exergy.

    Introduction to the thermodynamic analysis of processes. Applications to Compressible Flows and Compressors, to Power Cycles and Refrigeration cycles

  • Multicomponent systems:

- Ideal and non ideal mixture: excess properties and their calculation.

Energy balance for non ideal mixture, mixing enthalpy and enthalpy concentration charts

Thermodynamic approaches for the description of non ideal mixtures: fugacity, activity and activity coefficient and their calculation.

- General multiphase equilibrium I.

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium: Qualitative behavior and Ideal models.

Liquid-liquid and Vapor-Liquid-liquid Equilibrium – Non-ideal models.

Gas liquid or gas solid extension of EoS to the description of mixtures

- Chemical Reaction Equilibrium

Chemical Reaction Equilibrium – derivation of general equilibrium relationship and analysis of Temperature and pressure effects .

Example of solution for non ideal systems, system involving pure solid phases, ststem involving also the presence of a liquid phase

Multiple Reactions systems.


Suggested textbook are

S. I. Sandler, "Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics " 3rd Edition, Wiley and Sons (1999)

J. M. Smith, H. C. Van Ness, Michael M. Abbott – “Introduction To Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics” (7th Edition) McGraw-Hill Education, 2005

where most of the theory and results considered in the course can be found. for further reference also the following book can be considered:

R. C. Reid, J. M. Prausnitz, and B. E. Poling, “The Properties of Gases and Liquids", McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987.

J. M. Prausnitz, R. N. Lichtenthaler, E. G. de Azevedo, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria 3rd Edition Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1999.

particularly focused on the different thermodynamic models available, and

E. Winterbone , Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers, Elsevier, 1996

to have example on the use of exergy in the analysis of thermodynamic processes.

Teaching methods


Assessment methods

The he course assessment will be based on a an oral exam based on the discussion of different topics presented during the course considering both applications and theoretical backgrounds.

In particular, each student will receive a homework at the end of the course and will have to prepare a written report presenting the solution of the homework and a throughout discussion of the procedure used and of the results obtained.

The report has to be delivered at least 1 week before the date of the oral exam and its correction will be used to start the discussion. In addition to the discussion and correction of the report, at least another question (usually 2) will be made during the oral to complete the assessment.

The final grade will be determined considering a) the correctness and the clarity of the report (about 20%) b) the cerrectness and clarity of the discussion on the report during the oral (20%) c) the correctness and clarity of the answer to other quesiotns (60%).

In case of negative outcome of the exam, the student can repeat a single time the oral keeping the same homework, and updating the report, if needed. After that a new exercise will be given.

Teaching tools

The slides presented during the lesson as well as other supporting materials (solved exercises, example of reports etc..) will be made available on insegnamenti online (https://iol.unibo.it/) before the beginning of the course or during the course in case of particular needs or updates.

Office hours

See the website of Marco Giacinti Baschetti