43049 - General and Inorganic Chemistry

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2020/2021

Learning outcomes

Upon completion of the course the student has acquired a good knowledge of the fundamentals of General and Inorganic Chemistry. In detail the student is able to use the basic knowledge of General Chemistry in order to evaluate the relationship between chemical structure and chemical reactivity of the most important inorganic compounds and apply the chemical equilibrium concepts.

Course contents

Atomic theory of the matter. Historical development of the atomic theory of matter. Chemical equations. Realtionship between mass and energy. Fundamental atomic particles. Atomic number, mass number. Isotopes. Atomic weights and atomic mass unit. The concept of mole. Avogadro's number. Absolute atomic (or molecular) masses.

Electronic structure of the atoms. Planetary atomic model and atomic spectra. Bohr's atomic model. De Broglie's equation. Heisenberg's uncertanty principle. Quantum or wave mechanics. Polyelectronic atoms. Periodic properties. Atomic structure: electronic atomic configurations and periodic table.

Chemical bond. Bond energy. Ionic bond. Covalent bond: Lewis' theory, valence bond (VB) theory, molecular orbital (MO) theory. Multiple bonds. Molecular geometry, Electron delocalization and resonance. Hybrid orbitals. Metallic bonding. Weak bondings: dipolar interactions, hydrogen bonding.

Nomenclature of inorganic compounds and chemical reactions. Oxidation number. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Chemical reactions: acid-base reactions, Exchange reactions, oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.

Gas phase. Properties of the ideal and real gases. Ideal gas law.

Liquid phase. Properties of liquids. Evaporation, condensation and vapor pressure. Boiling point of a liquid. Sublimation. Melting and freezing points of a liquid. State diagrams of H2O and CO2.

Solid state. Amorphous and crystalline solids and their properties. Classification of crystalline solids.

Solutions. Nature of the solutions. Concentrations of the solutions. Colligative properties of the solutions.

Chemical thermodynamics. State functions. Heat and work. The First law of thermodynamics. Thermochemistry: Hess law. The Second law of thermodynamics. Entropy. Variation of free energy and spontaneity.

Chemical Equilibrium. Equilibria in homogeneous systems. Use of the Equilibrium constant. Heterogeneous equilibria involving gas phases. External effects on equilibria: Le Chatelier's principle. Temperature dependance of Equilibrium constant. Relationship between free energy and the equilibrium constant of a reaction.

Solution equilibria. Solubility equilibria. Acid-base equilibria. The pH and pOH scale. Hydrolysis. Buffer solutions. Anfoterism.

Chemical kinetics. Rate law. Influence of the reagents concentration. Influence of temperature on the reaction rate. Reaction mechanisms. Catalyst's role and catalysis.

Electrochemistry. Galvanic and electrolytic cells. Faraday's laws. Electrical and chemical work. Electromotive force (emf) of a galvanic cell. Nernst equation. Electrolysis.

Elements of inorganic chemistry. Main characteristics of the chemical elements. Periodic properties of the elements.

Light-matter interaction principles.

Readings/Bibliography

- R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood. Chimica Generale principi e moderne applicazioni, Piccin, Padova.

- J.C. Kotz, P.M. Treichel, J.R. Townsend, Chimica, EdiSES, Napoli.

- P. Atkins, L. Jones, L. Laverman, Principi di chimica, Zanichelli, Bologna.

- S.S. Zumdahl, Chimica, Zanichelli, Bologna

- Appunti di lezione

Teaching methods

Classroom lessons, integrated with numerical exercises

Assessment methods

The final written exam consists of numerical exrcises and questions on the main topics of the course.

One ongoing written tests could be planned during the course about stoichiometry problems and open questions on the topics covered so far. In order to pass the examination the students must obtain at least 18/30 and the final marks will be the arithmetic average.

Teaching tools

Videoprojector, pc, blackboard

Office hours

See the website of Giacomo Bergamini