01651 - Analytical Clinical Chemistry

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Good health and well-being

Academic Year 2018/2019

Learning outcomes

The student acquires basic knowledge of quantitative analytical methods and common analytical techniques based on biospecific reagents (enzymatic analysis, immunometric methods). The student is able to: solve in the laboratory a clinical analysis problem by choosing one or more methods; critically evaluate the analytical data.

Course contents


The analytical process

Sampling of biological fluids


Statistical analyisis of replicates

Accuracy and precision

Statistical paramaters

Parametric significance tests: T test, F test, Q test

Confidence interval

Linear regression

Calibration: external standards, internal standard, standard additions

Validation of an analytical method: accuracy, precision (repeatability, reproducibility), sensitivity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, dynamic range, specificity, selectivity, robustness, solidity.


Lambert-Beer law: definition and use in quantitative analysis

Absorbance and transmittance

Absormance measurements: choice of wavelength and deviations from ideality

Instrumentation for spectrophotometry. Components and instrumental setup


Basics of chromatography: chromatogram, chromatographic peak, retention time, void time

Optimization of chromatographic separations: capacity factor, selectivity, efficiency, resolution

Instrumentation for chromatography

Gas chromatography: instrumentation and methods

Liquid chromatography (HPLC). Instrumentation

Methods in HPLC

Normal phase and reversed phase

Quantitative analysis in chromatography


Basics and instrumental setup

Hard and soft ion sources

Mass analyzers

MS of proteins


Principles and advantages of immunometric methods

Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Properties and applications

Labels for immunometry. Immunoenzymatic methods

Classification of immunomethods

Homogeneous and heterogeneous, competitive and non-competitive methods


Quantitative analysis


Enzymatic analysis. Basics and applications.

Properties and structure of enzymes

Enzymatic activity


Regions of the activity/[substrate] curve

Michaelis-Menten equation

Determination of enzymatic activity

Single-point, double-point and multipoint methods.

Quantitative analysis of antigens.

Endpoint methods

Measurement in enzymatic analysis




L. Spandrio "Principi e Tecniche di Chimica Clinica", Piccin

-A.J. Ninfa, D.P. Ballou "Metodologie di Base per la Biochimica e la Biotecnologia", Zanichelli (consultazione)

-J.M. Berg, J.L. Tymoczko, L. Stryer "Biochimica", V Edizione, Zanichelli

Teaching methods

Class lectures with overhead projection. The slides are available on http://campus.unibo.it

Assessment methods

Final exam on the course program

Teaching tools

Individual laboratory exercises.

Office hours

See the website of Andrea Zattoni