73699 - Architecture Design I And Laboratory

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2018/2019

Learning outcomes

The course provides the theoretical knowledge and the operating tools to represent architecture through its geometrical, formal and aestethic issues.
Aim of the course is to acquire techniques and methods of the technical drawing and representation language, both from the side of the theory and from the side of practice. At the end of the course the student will be able  to the use the most appropriate graphic tools and representations to illustrate with drawing, modeling and photography 3D architectures.

Course contents


1. Course introduction, course objectives, organization, methods and evaluation

Three thousand years of design and drawing: technical drafting

The tools for drawing


2. Freehand drawing for the design: drawing from the truth; notebook sketches; graphical analysis and conceptual drawing

Applications of freehand drawing for graphical analysis and the design process


3. Basics of surveying

Survey sketches and final drawings; measure unit.


4. Orthographic projection: introduction to descriptive geometry; the method of orthogonal projections; point, line and plane representation; specific problems solutions (position, alignment, inclusion, etc.); rotations; multiview orthographic projection; the technical representation of the project; graphics applications.


5. Conventions graphics and tools for technical drawing: UNI norms, the historical evolution of the processes of standardization and unification; national and international standards committee (UNI, CEN, ISO); UNI standards for technical drawing; treatment of sections (hatches and conventions); designation systems of buildings (UNI-ISO 4157).

Systems and conventions for drawings dimensioning: general principles of dimensioning; the dimensioning systems; series, parallel and progressive dimensioning; general and specific criteria for dimensioning of technical drawings; dimensioning of views, plans and elevations.

Technical drawings for the project: technical representation of the project, European method: views, plans, sections, elevations; applications; scales of representation; construction details; the representation of the elements of the green and the landscape; drawings for building permission; architecture competitions drawings.


6. Axonometric projections: general information; isometric model construction; orthogonal axonometric; oblique axonometric; applications; cutaways and exploded axonometric.


7. Perspective: projecting plans method; measuring points method; vanishing point method; lines of maximum slope; central perspective; applications; the perspective of the buildings.


8. One view projection: reference elements; Representation of point, line, and plane; conditions of belonging, parallelism, perpendicularity; application problems (intersections; roofs; terrain representation; roads); l contour lines.


9. Drawings of structures

Wood structures: UNI -ISO standards for structures of wood representation; trusses drawing; UNI 7619; analysis, development, articulation and representation of the nodes; examples.

Steel structures: UNI -ISO standards for structures of steel representation; steel trusses; UNI 7619; analysis, development, articulation and representation of the nodes; examples.

Concrete structures: UNI -ISO standards for the representation of structures of reinforced concrete; examples.


10. Vertical links and stairs: analysis and visualization of stairs and elevators; the elements of a stair; stair geometric classification; dimensional elements; ramps; ruled helicoids closed and open; spiral staircases; stairs design; examples.


11. Roofs: types of roofs; shape of roofs; general characteristics of roofs flat and sloped; reference terminology (UNI 8091); design and representation; applications on various conformations of plan; parts of roofs; examples.


12. Color theory: light and color, body color, color characteristics, additive and subtractive synthesis, primary secondary and complementary colors, dyes and colors, CIE 1931 diagram and Grossmann law, color models: RGB, CMY, CMYK, HSB, HSI, HSV, YUV and YIQ. The techniques of color, illustration techniques of rendering, the first rendering, how to make a rendering.

13: Shadows theory: proper and cast shadows, 45° shadows; representation of shadows in orthogonal projection; shadow of the point, the line and the plane.



- Description of cameras and operating principles

- Light sources, lighting techniques

- Camera use and lighting, shooting simple objects

- Geometric Distortion and perspective in photography

- Relationship between photography and architecture: theory and practice



1. Knowledge of security policy to be adopted to minimize the risks related to the use of hand tools and machines. 

2. Methods and techniques to design and build a model of architecture to be realized manually: tools and instrument to be use; materials; modeling techniques.

3. Practical construction of models both in the classroom and in the lab, which will put into practice the concepts learned.


Text needed

. M.Docci, D.Maestri, M.Gaiani, Scienza del disegno, CittàStudi, Novara, 2017 - https://www.pandoracampus.it/

. On-line lecture notes - https://iol.unibo.it/


Complementary texts

. R.Migliari, Geometria descrittiva, CittàStudi, Novara, 2009

. S.Bertocci, M.Bini, Manuale di rilievo architettonico e urbano, CittàStudi, Novara, 2012.

. N.Crowe, P.Laseau, Visual Notes for architects and designers, New York, 1984

. P.Polato, Il modello nel design: la bottega di Giovanni Sacchi, Hoepli, Milano 1991.

. F.Salvarani, La costruzione del modello architettonico, Di Baio editore, Milano 1992.

. I.Zannier, "Storia e tecnica della fotografia", Bari, Laterza Editori, 2000

. M.Carpiceci (a cura di), “La fotografia per l'architettura e l'ambiente”, Roma, Palombi, 1997

. M.Capobussi, "Fotografia. Conoscere e praticare la fotografia digitale e classica", Novara, De Agostini, 2008

. Ente nazionale italiano di unificazione, M1 (voll. 1, 2, 3)


Teaching methods

The course is organized in cycles of lectures and a series of practical exercises


Exercises consists of a series of individual activities threefold:

I. a series of exercises in the classroom from work patterns assigned by the teacher to achieve on A3 paper sheet.

II. a series of drawings to make yourself that focus the student's ability to apply the concepts learned on a subject of your choice from a common theme assigned. Drawings will be done using A2 format paper sheet.

III. notebook sketches (paper with no white or yellow stripes or squares, with spiral binding and hard cover, format A4 size )

Delivery mode:

I - classroom exercises: at the end of each test.

II - autonomous exercises: in date notified by the teacher.

III - notebook sketches: at examination.


 To complete theory lessons, activities are planned in the lab, aimed at the acquisition of basic techniques of shooting, and outdoor shooting of architectural subjects.


The course will be divided into a few lectures in the classroom in which you explain the objectives of the module, some theoretical aspects of the topics covered, the security policy to be adopted during the use of instruments, and an overview of the technologies available.

Then the activity will take place in the lab and finally the students will visit the models lab and will be able to get in touch with the most advanced tools.

Responsible of all the modules is the professor 

Assessment methods

In order to be admitted to the examination student must be deliver with a positive grade:

a – sketchbook

b - 80% of classroom exercises of each module (done 100% by means of recovery of any lost or with negative grade in a specific day specified on the calendar of lessons delivered in the classroom on the first day of class).

c – final assignment Lab

The lack of the requirement "b" can be obviated with a graphical exam previous oral examination with regard to the module of Drawing, with a final test of 2 hours at multiple response with regard to the module of Models and Photography.

The lack of the requirement "c" can not be remedied

Oral and practical tests must be held in the same examination session.

The classroom exercises will be considered valid for the examination only within the last appeal of the A. 2018-2019

The verification of learning takes place through the final exam only, where is verified the acquisition of all the knowledge and all the expected skills by an oral examination concerning the methodologies learned during the course and a discussion on the works produced during the year.

In case of verification of lack of knowledge of the operative part, the student can be asked to integrate the exam with a practical test.

The assessment is graded according to the ability of the student to expose and put into practice the expected knowledge. The complete lack of a specific competence will result in not passing the exam.

Teaching tools


A sketchbook will be used during the course and studio activities; teacher will request specific graphic assignments on the sketchbook. The sketchbook will be used to record visual notes, improve free hand techniques and practices drawing in a free way of expression; it's fundamental self-training tool too.
For the lab activities students are requested to bring their own drawing supplies and a series of UNI A3 sheets. Specifications on drawing instruments will be done during the lessons.

All tables must submit according to the model that will be provided.



To complete the hours of theory, activities are planned in the lab, aimed at the acquisition of basic techniques of shooting, and outdoor shooting of architectural subjects. For them, the student is asked that use his own SLR camera. If not owned, it's possible to use some cameras of the Department of Architecture.



The module includes lab work. Students must have of personal protective equipment: gloves, masks, goggles; and modeling instruments: cutter, rows teams scissors, glue. Students will also have to obtain the raw material for the production of models: cardboard, balsa wood, foam, glue, etc. according to the instructions that will be provided in class.

Office hours

See the website of Marco Gaiani

See the website of Cristiana Bartolomei