37185 - Histology and Embryology 1 (L-Z)

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2018/2019

Learning outcomes

At the end of formative way, the student knows submicroscopic organization, and their functional aspects, of various citotypes, which constitutes human tissues. The student knows human embryology, with regulation mechanisms.

Course contents


CITOLOGY General aspects of cellule and tissues. Chemichal composition of cells and extracellular matrix. Submicroscopic and functional aspects of membrane of the cell. Cellular compartments: ultrastructural and functional aspects of subcellular organules. Mitocondri, cytoskeleton, nucleus and nucleolus

HISTOLOGY Differentiation and histogenesis
Cells, tissues, organs apparata, organisms
Histological differentiation and organization into four basic tissues.
Epithelial tissues
Embryonic development and distribution. ultrastructure and function of epithelial cells. Histological classification.
Covering and lining epithelium. Structure and function of basement membranes.
Structure and function of glands . Exocrine and endocrine secretions.
Histology and function of Exocrine Glands. Classification.
Overview of Endocrine System. Regulatory mechanism of endocrine secretion. Hormones.
Connective Tissue
Embryonic development and distribution. Cells and extracellular matrix (ECM): collagen and elastic fibers, amorphous ground substance. Interstitial fluid. Classification.
Classification of Connective tissue proper. Mucous connective tissue. Loose connective tissue. Reticular and elastic tissues. Dense regular and irregular tissues. Adipose tissues.
Overview, histological structure and classification of Cartilage. Perichondrium. Cartilage growth and repairing.
Bone and osteogenesis: overview. Trabecular and compact bone: cells and ECM. Dentin and cementum.
Blood and hematopoiesis. Structure and function of blood. Plasma and cells. histology of bone marrow and emopoietic cell differentiation.
Muscle tissue
Embryonic development. Classification and organization. Smooth muscle: ultrastructure and function. Contraction mechanism.
Skeletal Muscle : ultrastructure and organization of skeletal muscle fibers. Histology and function of Cardiac muscle.
Nervous tissue. Embryonic development, structure and function. Types of neurons. Ultrastructure of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers. Ultrastructure of synapses. Structure and function of glia.


ISTOLOGIA UMANA - Idelson Gnocchi Editore - Autori vari

Istologia atlante di G. Bani, D. Bani, T. Bani Sacchi; Idelson-Gnocchi Editore

-Atlante di Istologia di Gianpaolo Papaccio; Idelson-Gnocchi Editore

-Dongmei Cui Atlante di Istologia con correlazioni funzionali e cliniche a cura di A. Filippini, A. Musarò, E. Ziparo; Piccin Editore

-Atlante di Istologia e Anatomia microscopica di M.H. Ross, W. Pawlina, T. A. Barnash; Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons

Assessment methods

The check consists of a preliminary proof at microscopy, for the identifications of histological tissues. If this proof is not sufficient, the examination does not progress.

The oral examination focuses on cytological, histological and embryological matter, according to the program of Istology and Embryology 1 and Histology and Embryology . The insufficence also in one of the three learning is not allowed.

In caso of negative result of the oral examination, the student may keep the result of the practice or make it again. The vote is valid until the appeals of december 2018.

The final votation, by determination of the Commission, considers the results obtained.

Teaching tools

Power point presentations and microscopic figures of histological tissues. Students, by means og a reserved list, may got on line material employed during the lessons.

Office hours

See the website of Elisabetta Caramelli